Concerto for Clarinet-Mozart no 622.
- Intented to be written for basset horn.
3 movements, fast, slow, fast
- Dotted Rhythms
LINK TO RAVEL- Piccolo suggests a fife flute from the basque region
Dotted Rhythms mov 2
3 mov- fast, slow, fast
Keyboard Concerto in D minor 1738- Bach
Violin-esque intergrated - more so than classical (dev of concerto)
3 movements fast, slow, fast.
Violin 1&2, Viola, continuo, harpsichord and string orchestra- typical (dev of concerto)
Link to Ravel fast slow fast
Brandenburg Concerto Number 2 in F
3 movements, Fast, slow, fast
No single soloist!!
Trumpet, Oboe, Violin, Recorder plus Ripenio
Link to Ravel fast, slow fast.
Use ripenio/ concertino accompanied by a string orchestra and a continuo (usually harpsichord, or organ= ripenio) Link to use/development of soloist)
Saint Saens Concerto in C minor op 44 1875
Trad- fast, slow, fast.
2nd movement change 2-4 and 6/8
Structure is different- only 2 movements- (dev. of concerto)
Romantic Symphony Orchestra- MORE BRASS. 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones- percussion (timpani)
Link to Ravel- fast slow fast
2nd mov - RH in 3/4 LH 6/8
Schumann cello concerto in A minor 1850
3 CONNECTED movements, fast, slow fast
Sonata, ternary, sonata
Soloist comes in straight away ( dev of concerto) (XR MENDELSOHN)
Use of 2/4 and 6/8 shifts
3rd movement- sequences
Cello(x2)- one soloist, flutes, oboes, clarinets, basoons, horns, trumpet, timp and strings (closer to classical era)
Link to Ravel- 3 movements, sonata ternary, sonata.
2/4 and 6/8 shifts = 2nd movement
3rd mov= sequences
Shostakovich Violin Concerto A minor
4 movements- moderato, fast, slow, fast (dev. of concerto)
influence of folk music
rhythmic interest/steady beats/uneven stresses
Percussion more like Ravel, 3 flutes, one doubles piccolo, woodwind orch, like extended percussion, brass, bigger ww section, contra basoon and cor anglais.
Link to Ravel - influence of folk music -rhythmic interest/steady beats/uneven stresses, fast slow, fast.Very virtuosic.Percussion
J Hummel- Trumpet Concerto in E major
3 movements (fast, slow, fast)
Soloist Enters late (XR Mozart Piano concerto in c minor)
Trumpet plus flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 basoons, 2 horns, strings, timpani.
Link to Ravel- virtuosic cadenza, 3 movements
Mendelssohn-Violin Concerto in E minor
First Movement- sonata form- became the norm
Soloist comes in straight away- (development of the concerto) (XR Schumann Cello Concerto in A minor 1850)
No pauses between each movement (development of the concerto) (XR Bruch violin concerto in G minor and Lutoslawski concerto for piano and orch)
Virtuosic Cadenza (XR J Hummel Trumpet Concerto)
Solo violin plus standard classical orchestra
Link to Ravel- 3 movements- first movement- sonata form
Beethoven's concerto for violin. opus 61 1806
3 movements, fast, slow, fast.
D maj, G maj, D maj.
Totally typical of classical period (dev. of concerto)
Soloist used as accompaniment
Candenza exploits high range (XR MENDELSSOHN CONCERTO IN E MINOR)
6 motifs- theme comes from
Links to Ravel- 3 movements, soloist used as accompaniment, cadenza exploits high range- uses motifs theme- (Ravel- XYZ)
Bruch- Violin Concerto in G minor (1866)
3 movements- fast, slow, fast.
Virtuosic double stopping
Solo violin plus standard classical orchestra
First movement leads straight into second movement (XR MENDELSSOHN VIOLIN CONCERTO IN E MINOR and Lutoslwaski concerto for piano and orchestra 1988)
Link to Ravel- 3 movements
Sibelius violin concerto- D minor- Op 47 1904
FAST-SLOW-FAST= Sonata, Ternary, Theme and Variations
Movements are separated- don’t follow on one after the other
Solo violin 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones,Timpani and Strings
Typical Romantic symphony orchestra in that time period. Note: more use of brass in this time period.
imitates the woodwind parts here in the 2nd movement
The violin plays a cadenza instead of a development section.
chromaticism in the second movement for example, the clarinets play a chromatic melody with C#’s and Ab’s, to begin the theme. In the first movement the melody is taken through a cycle of fifths.
Interesting timbre is created with the clarinet s in thirds in the second movement
Link to Ravel- 3 movements, movements are seperated, chormaticism, cycle of fifths, interesting timbre- Ravel uses flutter-tounguing- Ravel also imitates W.W in Recapitulation.
Lutoslawski-concerto for piano and orchestra -1988
4 movements - (dev of concerto) (no breaks inbetween) (Mendellsohn violin concerto in E minor and Bruch Violin Concerto in G minor)
Opening woodwind birdsong= introduction-piano first motif entirely solo.
Tonal, very chromatic and a tonal sections
Link to Ravel: Polyrhythms, very chromatic.
Bartok Concerto for Orchestra (NOT SOLO)
Why mention this piece?
- dev of orchestra- five movements- large orchestra- big percussion section, triangle, side drum, bass drum, cymbal tam tam. Each instrument has moments of being a soloist.
Link to Ravel; moments of orchestral brillaince, pentatonic, bi-tonal, polyrhythyms, use of national folk music- Ravel used spanish and basque influences.