Examples Essay


Concerto for Clarinet-Mozart no 622.

- Intented to be written for basset horn. 

3 movements, fast, slow, fast

- Dotted Rhythms

LINK TO RAVEL- Piccolo suggests a fife flute from the basque region

Dotted Rhythms mov 2

3 mov- fast, slow, fast

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Keyboard Concerto in D minor 1738- Bach

Violin-esque intergrated - more so than classical (dev of concerto)

3 movements fast, slow, fast.

Violin 1&2, Viola, continuo, harpsichord and string orchestra- typical (dev of concerto)

Link to Ravel fast slow fast

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Brandenburg Concerto Number 2 in F

3 movements, Fast, slow, fast

No single soloist!! 

Trumpet, Oboe, Violin, Recorder plus Ripenio

Link to Ravel fast, slow fast. 

Use ripenio/ concertino accompanied by a string orchestra and a continuo (usually harpsichord, or organ= ripenio) Link to use/development of soloist)

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Saint Saens Concerto in C minor op 44 1875

Trad- fast, slow, fast.

2nd movement change 2-4 and 6/8

Structure is different- only 2 movements- (dev. of concerto)

Romantic Symphony Orchestra- MORE BRASS. 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones- percussion (timpani)

Link to Ravel- fast slow fast

2nd mov - RH in 3/4 LH 6/8

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Schumann cello concerto in A minor 1850

3 CONNECTED movements, fast, slow fast

Sonata, ternary, sonata

Soloist comes in straight away ( dev of concerto) (XR MENDELSOHN)

Use of 2/4 and 6/8 shifts

3rd movement- sequences

Cello(x2)- one soloist, flutes, oboes, clarinets, basoons, horns, trumpet, timp and strings (closer to classical era)

Link to Ravel- 3 movements, sonata ternary, sonata. 

2/4 and 6/8 shifts = 2nd movement

3rd mov= sequences

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Shostakovich Violin Concerto A minor

4 movements- moderato, fast, slow, fast (dev. of concerto)

Very virtuosic 

influence of folk music

rhythmic interest/steady beats/uneven stresses

Percussion more like Ravel, 3 flutes, one doubles piccolo, woodwind orch, like extended percussion, brass, bigger ww section, contra basoon and cor anglais.

Link to Ravel - influence of folk music -rhythmic interest/steady beats/uneven stresses, fast slow, fast.Very virtuosic.Percussion

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J Hummel- Trumpet Concerto in E major

3 movements (fast, slow, fast)

Soloist Enters late (XR Mozart Piano concerto in c minor)

Virtuosic cadenza

Trumpet plus flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 basoons, 2 horns, strings, timpani. 

Link to Ravel- virtuosic cadenza, 3 movements

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Mendelssohn-Violin Concerto in E minor

3 movements

First Movement- sonata form- became the norm 

Soloist comes in straight away- (development of the concerto) (XR Schumann Cello Concerto in A minor 1850)

No pauses between each movement (development of the concerto) (XR Bruch violin concerto in G minor and Lutoslawski concerto for piano and orch)

Virtuosic Cadenza (XR J Hummel Trumpet Concerto)

Solo violin plus standard classical orchestra

Link to Ravel- 3 movements- first movement- sonata form

Virtuosic Cadenza

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Beethoven's concerto for violin. opus 61 1806

3 movements, fast, slow, fast.

D maj, G maj,  D maj.

Totally typical of classical period (dev. of concerto)

Soloist used as accompaniment

Candenza exploits high range (XR MENDELSSOHN CONCERTO IN E MINOR)

6 motifs- theme comes from

Links to Ravel- 3 movements, soloist used as accompaniment, cadenza exploits high range- uses motifs theme- (Ravel- XYZ)

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Bruch- Violin Concerto in G minor (1866)

3 movements- fast, slow, fast.

Virtuosic double stopping

Solo violin plus standard classical orchestra

First movement leads straight into second movement (XR MENDELSSOHN VIOLIN CONCERTO IN E MINOR and Lutoslwaski concerto for piano and orchestra 1988)

Link to Ravel- 3 movements

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Sibelius violin concerto- D minor- Op 47 1904

FAST-SLOW-FAST= Sonata, Ternary, Theme and Variations

Movements are separated- don’t follow on one after the other

Solo violin 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones,Timpani and Strings

Typical Romantic symphony orchestra in that time period. Note: more use of brass in this time period.

imitates the woodwind parts here in the 2nd movement 

The violin plays a cadenza instead of a development section. 

chromaticism in the second movement for example, the clarinets play a chromatic melody with C#’s and Ab’s, to begin the theme. In the first movement the melody is taken through a cycle of fifths. 

Interesting timbre is created with the clarinet s in thirds in the second movement 

Link to Ravel- 3 movements, movements are seperated, chormaticism, cycle of fifths, interesting timbre- Ravel uses flutter-tounguing- Ravel also imitates W.W in Recapitulation.

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Lutoslawski-concerto for piano and orchestra -1988

4 movements - (dev of concerto) (no breaks inbetween) (Mendellsohn violin concerto in E minor and Bruch Violin Concerto in G minor)

Opening woodwind birdsong= introduction-piano first motif entirely solo.

Tonal, very chromatic and a tonal sections


Link to Ravel: Polyrhythms, very chromatic.

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Bartok Concerto for Orchestra (NOT SOLO)

Why mention this piece?

- dev of orchestra- five movements- large orchestra- big percussion section, triangle, side drum, bass drum, cymbal tam tam. Each instrument has moments of being a soloist. 

Link to Ravel; moments of orchestral brillaince, pentatonic, bi-tonal, polyrhythyms, use of national folk music- Ravel used spanish and basque influences. 

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