schemas and researchers
SCHEMAS - Knowledge built up through experience of different situations
Cohen (1993) - 5 ways schemas reconstruct memory
1. We ignore aspects that dont fit into schemas
2. We store central features of an event, not exact
3. We make sense of a situation by filling in missing information (assuming)
4. We distort memory for events we fit in to prior
5. We use schemas to try and correctly guess if we cant recall
Brewer and Treyens (1981) - Skull in the office - visual memory. 30 people, one by one, 61 objects, normal and not. Better at recalling office items. And false.
Bransford and Johnson (1972) - The role of context - we use prior knowledge to make sense of a situation (IN SUPPORT OF SCHEMAS)
The role of anxiety in EWT
Loftus - Tried to find out if anxiety during an accident affects accuracy -
Participants overheard a discussion about equipment failure --> then man came out of lap holding a pen
Participants then overheard a hostile exchange. After hearing breaking glass, man appeared with a paper knife with blood on hands. Participants were asked to identify photos.
Those who witnessed man holding pen identified him more accurately than those who witnessed man with the knife.
This suggests "weapon focus" because a weapon (e.g knife) distracts attention of appearance. This is also due to fear of anxiety because it narrows concentration.
Loftus and Burns - Participants watched violent or non violent film. Results showed that those who watched a violent film were less accurate in recall.
Other researchers for EWT
Foster et al (1994) - CONSEQUENCES OF THE TESTIMONY
Group of participants were shown a video of a robbery and were told it was real. Other knew it was an experiment. The first group were more accurate in recalling.
Ceci and Bruck - FACTORS THAT AFFECT CHILDRENS EWT
- Interviewer bias
- Repeated questions
- Encouragement to imagine
- Peer pressure (authority figure)
Kent and Yuille - THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION GIVEN BY CHILDREN + ITS ACCURACY
The younger children are more likely to remember than a slightly older one (14yrs)