- Immanuel Kant
- Deontological (concerned with the morality of duty)
- Based solely on duty
- Doing a moral duty comes from God (theist)
- Moral statements
- Highest form of good is good will.
- Good will doest the right thing regardless of the outcomes
- We should never be used merely as a means to an end
- Disagreed with making moral choices out of compassion.
- Categorical Imperatives - you do something because it is right to do
Kant's starting point for moral philosophy was his observation that we all have experience of an inate moral duty. He believed that our moral duty could be reveaed to us through reason, objectively. His theory was based soley on duty.
TO ACT MORALLY IS TO PERFORM ONE'S DUTY AND ONE'S DUTY IS TO OBEY THE INATE MORAL LAWS.
Kant said that it is not our duty to do what is impossible for us to do. For Kant, the fact that we ought to do something implies that we can. Although if circumstances prevent this then the obligation ceases.
We all aim to reach an ultimate end called the summum bonum. However since it is impossible to reach this state in one lifetime he dedcued that we must have immortal souls to succeed. Thus Kant believed in an afterlife where there is possibility to reach one's summum bonum. For an afterlife to exist, Kant said God must exist. For him, God was a necessary for morality and not the other way around.