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Stress and the Immune System

  • Antigens (bad bacteria), Lucocytes (good WBC), Luc kill Anit
  • Stress = Luc function    - stopped by cortisol - immunosuppressive effect
  • Less B and killer T cells to kill bad

Kiecolt-Glaser

  • Medical students nat exp.
  • Blood sample before and during exams (for NK cells)
  • Lower NK levels during exams - Stress     = immune system 
  • - Pop validity - non gen
  • + real life - eco valid

Malarkey

  • Lab ex - newlyweds solve conflicts 
  • More adrenaline = more stressed
  • - Pop val - newlyweds - ungen
  • + real life - eco val
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Stress Management

Drugs 

  • BZs - less GABA - more Chloride ions
  • More Cl = less anxiety
  • + easy, fast, effective
  • - Side effects, addiction

Biofeedback - on what to do

  • + good for children

CBT esp. SIT

  • Conceptualise (get an idea), Skills acquired, Apply
  • + Helps w/ future stressors, better than SD
  • - Time, effort, money
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Independant Behaviour

Resisting conformity

  • Want to be individual
  • Control - Burger - more control = less conformity
  • Prescence of others - Mil Var - confedorates = conformity down to       %
  • Moral consideration - Hornsey - little will do it if wrong e.g cheating

Resisting obedience

  • Wake from agentic shift - Mil Orig - 2 refused past 200v - too much pain and coward to pass responsibility (from WWII)
  • Discusison - Gamson - talk about meaning of video
  • Reactance - Gamson - one vioced, others join in
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Approaches to Abnormality (Bio + Psy)

Biological

  • Mental disorder = Physical illness
  • Brain damage, disease, genes, biochemistry
  • + No blame, research support (Kendler 10% chance more Schizop. if fam has it)
  • - stigma, reductionist

Psychological - FREUD

  • Unconscious forces - id, ego, superego
  • OAPLG (oral, anal, oedipus, social, relationships)
  • Ego Def Mech (regression, denial, projection)
  • + influential
  • - untestable, retrospective
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Approaches to Abnormality (Beh + Cog)

Behavioural

  • Classical (Pavlov), Operant (Little Albert), Social Learning (Bobo)
  • + Focus on behaviour
  • - Cause not identified, reductionist

Cognitive

  • Ellis - irrational thinking - maladaptive v adaptive
  • Polarised, overgeneralised, catastrophise
  • Beck - Cognitive Triad - Future, Self, World
  • - No origin, individual is not responsible 
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Therapies to Abn. (Bio)

Drugs

  • Anit anxiety, depressants, psychotic
  • + Effective, cheap, easy to get
  • - symptoms not cause, side effects

ECT

  • Electrodes, 0.6amps, <1sec
  • Used for severe depression e.g. suicidal
  • + quick, Comer - 60% improve
  • - Last resort, method unclear

Psychosurgery

  • Remove abnormal brain tissue - Last resort
  • + Successful
  • - Controversial
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Therapies to Abn. (Psy)

Psychoanalysis

  • Dream analysis
  • Free assosiation
  • Projection (ink blots)
  • - Expensive, vague, time, effectiveness is dependant on problem

Systematic Desensitisation

  • Fear              Relaxation
  • Relaxation, hierachy of fearful situations, use relaxation, in real life
  • + effective, research support (Emmelhaup)
  • - some have no imagination, quicker alternatives
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Therapies to Abn. (Beh + Cog)

Aversion Therapy

  • Addictions - link to nausea for example
  • - Ethics, may not be effective

Behaviour Modification (OC)

  • Tokens for good action
  • - May become dependant on tokens, institutional bias

CBT

  • Irrational thoughts         positive thinking
  • Ellis - ABC Model - Activating thought, Belief, Consequence
  • Fava - Drugs + CBT - 20 v 20
  • 25% both relapsed, 80% drugs only relapsed                       - small sample - non gen
  • + Diverse application, not too deep (appealing), depression fought
  • - ethics
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