Equations and Acids

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 26-01-14 15:59

Equations - Formulae (Ionic Compounds)

Ionic Compounds

  • A ionic compound is a compound formed by ions onding together through electrostatic forces.
  • Metal ions have a positive charge.
  • Non-metal ions have a negative charge.

Formula of an ionic compound

  • How to work out the formula:
    • Write the formulae of the ions
    • Adjust the number of each ion so that there is no overall charge.
  • For Example:
    • Magnesium Bromide: - ions are Mg2+ and Br-
    • Need 2 x Br- to balance Mg2+
    • Formula is MgBr2.
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Equations - Formulae (Covalent Compounds)

Covalent Compounds

  • A molecule formed by covalent bonds, in which the atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
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Ionic Equations

Ionic Equations

  • Ionic equations leave out ions that are unchanged in a reaction.
  • The unchanged ions are called spectator ions.


HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ---> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

H+(aq) + OH-(aq) ---> H2O(l)

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  • An acid is a proton donor (H+ donor)
  • Common acis are hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulphuric acid  (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).
  • An acid releases Hions in aqueous solution.
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  • A base is a proton acceptor (H+ acceptor).
  • Bases are metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia solution.
  • Bases destroy acidity in neutralisation reactions.
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  • An alkali is a soluble base.
  • Alkalis release OH- ions in aqueous solution.
  • Common alkalis are sodium hydroxide, NaOH, potassium hydroxide, KOH, and aqueous ammonia, NH3.
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  • Salts are produced when the Han acid is replaced by another positive ion.
  • Salts are formed when acids react with bases and carbonates.
  • Observations when react:
    • Fizzing 
    • Carbonate dissolves


  • Acid + carbonate Ž---> salt + water + carbon dioxide
  • 2HCl(aq) + MgCO3(s) Ž---> MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
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