English Paper 1 Words

glossary

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Affective Fallacy

the error of making subjective responses the criteria for interpretive, critical or aesthetic judgements

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Allegory

a narrative which -through allusion, metaphor, symbolism etc.- can be read not simply on its own terms but also as telling another, quite different story simultaneously

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Allusion

a reference, direct or indirect, to another work of art, event etc.

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Ambiguity

when a word/phrase may be taken in more than one way

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Animism

rhetorical figure whereby something inanimate is given attributes of life or spirit

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Anthropocentrism

refers to everything within a culture that asserts or assumes that the human is at the centre, be it of the universe, world or meaning of text

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Anthropomorphism

rhetorical figure whereby non-human is described in human terms

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Aporia

rhetorical figure for doubt

may arise when two or more contradictory messages may be found within a text

an impasse’ or site of undecideability

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Bathos

abrupt descent from elevated to commonplace

anti-climax

often a cause of humour reducing the elevated to the trivial

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Cataphresis

malapropism

misuse of language

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Catharsis

Aristotle

end of tragedy

release of emotional tension arising from an experience of a paradoxical mixture of pity and terror, often leading to healing

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Chiasmus

rhetorical figure involving repetition and reversal

if you fail to plan, you plan to fail

where each of the two sides of a conceptual opposition (man/woman) (text/world) is shown to be reversible and paradoxically functioning and present in its opposite

ABCDCBA

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Close Reading

words on the page rather than ideological/historical context, author biography or intent

New Criticism

ignores questions of the readers’ role in reading

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Cultural Materialism

concerned to expose ideological and political dimensions of texts

material conditions of production and reception

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Defamiliarisation

Shlovsky

denoting a perceived primary function of literary texts to make the familiar unfamiliar, renew the old etc.

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Deixis

use of words concerning place and time and time of utterance

this, here

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Double Bind

a double or contradictory statement

this sentence is not true

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Epistemophilia

desire for knowledge which literary texts produce in readers

dynamic of curiosity basis of all intellectual activity

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Equivocality

similar to ambiguity, however the meaning cannot be resolved

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Essentialism

reference to ways of perceiving people, culture etc. as having innate, natural or universal characteristics (as separate from environment)

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Fabula

the story

events of a narrative

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Feminist criticism

exploring oft-marginalised tradition of female writing

challenge conventional notions of masculinity and femininity

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Formalism

stresses importance of form: as distinct from content, meaning, social history etc.

style, rhyme, narrative structure, verse-form

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Hermeneutic

the theory of bible study

lately, the theory of interpretation

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Heteroglossia

the variety of voices or languages within a text

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In media res

starting the story in the middle of the action

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Ab ovo

starting the story from the beginning

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Intentional fallacy

the error of attempting to interpret literary texts by appealing to supposed authorial intention

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Intertextuality

theory that texts are ‘tissues of citations’, that every word refers to another text

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Logocentrism

a western attribute which puts meaning or words at the centre

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Metonymy

basic trope where the name of an attribute of an object is given instead of the object itself

the pen is mightier than the sword

pen=writing
sword=conflict

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Paradox

apparently contradictory statement, apparently illogical or absurd but may be understood to be meaningful or true

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Paronomasia

word play

puns etc.

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Phallocentrism

everything in a culture which asserts or assumes the phallus and associated patriarchy is at the centre

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Phallogocentrism

referring to everything in language or meaning which is phallocentric

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Polysemia

quality of having several or many meanings

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Self-reflexivity

where a piece of writing refers to itself

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Stichomythia

the mimesis of speech with slight alterations, often to mock

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