English Language Key Groups and Terms

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Semantics Part II

Antonyms - Opposites eg hot and cold

Irony - Something said for a negative effect

Clichés - Something stereotypical

Euphemisms/ Dysphemisms - Lightening the mood/ darkening the mood

Litotes - A deliberate understatement 


Synechdoche - A group of things

Metonym - An object that represents something eg the crown = royalty 

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Phonemes - letters that distinguish utterances

Vowels/ Consonants - a, e, i, o, u/ the rest of them


Phonetic Spelling

Prosodic Features + High/ Low Rising Intonations 

Onomatopoeia - words that sound like an action

Alliteration: Plosive, Fricative, Affricate, Nasal, Lateral, Approximant 

Assonance - resemblence between syllables

Consonance  - repetitive sounds

Dissonance - words that sound very different


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Lexis Part II

Monosyllabic Lexis - Single Syllable 

Polysyllabic Lexis - Multiple Syllables

Anaphoric Reference - A reference that goes back in a text

Cataphoric Reference - A reference that goes foward in a text 

Exophoric Reference - A refence that refers to another text 

Lexical Cohesion 

Rhetorical Lexis

Vocatives - They way you adress someone eg Prime Minister, Sir, Doctor

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Pre/ Post Modifiers - adjective before/ after the noun

Phrases: Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases, Prepositional Phrases, Adverbials (Time, Place Manner)

Clauses: Main, Embedded, Subordinate Relative Clause, Subordiante Adverbial Clause

Clause Elements: Subject, Verb, Object, Complement, Adverbial

Sentence Types: Minor, Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound Complex

Sentence Functions: Declararive, Interrogative, Imperative, Exclamatory 

Voices: Active, Passive

Listing: Syndeton, Syndetic, Asyndetic

Other/ Misc: Ellipsis, Parallelism, Parenthethis 

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Word Classes: Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Verbs

Determiners: Definite/ Indefinite Article, Possessive Determiners Demonstrative Determiners, Cardinal determiners, Ordinal Determiners

Prepositions: Place, Direction, Time, Comparison

Conjuntions: Subordinating/ Co-ordinating Conjuctions, Time, Place, Purpose, Reason, Condition, Contrast, Comparision 

Interjection - an abrubt remark

Intersenifier - getting more servere

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Lexis Part I

Lexical Fields - eg law, films, politics

Slang - Something your mum wouldn't understand

Foreign Borrowings - Lasange, Sushi, Gesundheit 

Neologisms -  A new word

Archaic Lexis - A dead word

Acronyms - Individual lettes said together eg NASA

Initialisms - Letters said seperataly eg GCSE

Colloquialisms - Non formal langauge

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Semantics Part I

Denotation/ Connotation - Actual meaning/ Implied meaning

Similes - Like/ as something

Metaphors - Comparing two things by saying one is the other

Personification - Giving an object human traits

Imagery - Mental picture 

Semantic Fields

Hypernym/ Hyponym - Group of things/ singular thing

Collocation - Words that go together eg fast food, quick shower

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Morpheme - cannot be further divided eg sheep

Suffixes - Goes at the end of a word eg -ment, -ion, -er, -ed

Prefixes - Goes at the beginning of a word eg de-, re-, dis-

Inflections - -'s, -**, -es

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