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data collected from observation or experiment... doesn't reply on argument or beliefs so open to public scrutiny.

  • belief that all knowledge should be devised from sensory experince.
  • Objectivity.. without bias.. greatest control
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any component reseacher can replicate the specific study to achieve the same results

  • It strenghens the theory, methods and results
  • adds confidence 
  • confirms validity so able to generalise 
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ability of reseacher to make a justified extension of their conclusions, apply them to other memebers of the target population and other situations

  • it validitates theory to find general principles that can apply to all 
  • cant always generalise and different cultures, sample used (volunteer, or opportunity) 
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