RESEARCH METHODS - Features of Science

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  • Features of Science
    • Empirical methods
      • info gained from direct observation or experiment rather than beliefs or argument
      • empirical evidence - the things we know to be true
      • empirical def: a method of gaining knowledge which relies on direct obser or testing, not hearsay or rational argument
    • Objectivity
      • science should be objective - not affected in any way by expectations / bias of researcher
      • good science should involve lots of control (observational inc)
        • extraneous and confounding - shows there is not enough control
    • Replicability
      • it should be practically possible to replicate a study
      • if repeated, it should have the same results
      • reliability = replicability
      • procedures should be explained precisely enough that someone else can perform it
    • Theory Construction
      • a collection of general principles that explain observations and facts
    • Hypothesis testing
      • inductive method
      • deductive method


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