Elizabeth I (1559-1603)

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Shane O'Neill 1558-67

  • resented losing earldom of Tyrone in Ulster to brother
  • murdered his brother, and turned on English settlers and the admin in Dublin
  • kiled in a brawl with rival clans
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Northern Earls 1569-70

  • earls of Westmoreland and Northumberland planned to release Mary Stuart from captivity, marry her to Duke of Norfolk and force Elizabeth to recognise Mary as successor
  • Catholic earls wanted greater power for themselves in the north and wanted William Cecil dismissed (queen's secretary)
  • few supported the rebellion outside Yorkshire and Durham
  • fled when royal army approached
  • Northumberland executed; Westmorland never caught
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Munster 1569-73

  • James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald rose up against English plantations in Munster
  • Edmund Butler attacked settlements in Leix-Offaly
  • over 800 rebels executed
  • Fitzgerald escaped to France
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Geraldine 1579-83

  • Fitzgerald returned from abroad and raised Irish rebels in protest at Elizabeth's religious and political policies
  • Fitzgerald killed but Earl of Desmond assumed command and received aid from Italian and Spanish troops at Smerwick
  • rebels rounded up by Egnlish army
  • Desmond was executed
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Tyrone 1595- 1603

  • Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, raised support from every Irish province against English rule
  • Elizabeth underestimated  scale of his revolt, made several unwise appointments and deployed insufficient resources
  • Lord Mountjoy persuaded Tyrone to submit
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Oxfordshire 1596

  • in spite of severe economic problems, only armed uprising in England in 1590s occurred near Oxford and involved a hanful of protestors
  • government declaired it a rebellion and dispensed harshly punished leaders
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Essex 1601

  • Earl of Essex tried raising London to show popular support for him against Robert Cecil and queen's councillors
  • despite having nominal support of many nobles, none wanted risk their life or threaten the queen
  • the rebellion collapsed within a few hours
  • Essex and handful of his household servants were executed
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