Effects of Smoking

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Tar - Short Term Effects

mixture of chemicals

Collects on the airway linnings and alveoli

Builds up a thick layer that increases the distance gases have to diffuse through to get to the blood stream

These chemicals can cause an allergic reaction

Smooth muscle of airway contracts, making the lumen smaller for airflow to alveoli

Tar paralyses cilia so they can't move mucus

Tar stimulates goblet cells to enlarge and make more mucus

mucus collects on airways

Bacteria and virus' get trapped in mucus and can block bronchioles

Lungs become more suceptable to infections like flu and pneumonia

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Chronic Bonchitis

Inflamation of the lining of the airways, accompanied by damage to the cilia and the overproductionof mucus, so that mucus collects in the lungs

The symptons are: irratation in the lungs, continaul coughing, coughing up of mucus (that is often filled with bacteria, and white blood cells) that leads to an increased risk of lung infection.

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Loss of elasticty in the alveoli makes it harder to exhale

causes alveoli to burst

There is less surface area for gaseous exchange as larger air spaces are formed

Often short of breath as, espicially during exhertion

Blood is less oxygenated and fatigue will occur

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Chronic pbstructive pulmory disease (COPD)

A combination of diseases that include chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma

The symptons are a combination of symptons from all the diseases

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The addicitive chemical

The body becomes used to it and doesn't feel well unless it has more nicotine

Nicotine mimics a neaurotransmitter in the synapse between neurones

Makes the nervous system more sensitive and the smoker is more alert

Nicotine causes release of adrenaline

This increases heart and breathing rate

Constricts arteroles and increase blood pressure in arteroles

Reduces blood flow to the extremities, can led to amputation

Nicotine makes platelets sticky, increasing the risk of a blood clot (thrombus)

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Caron Monoxide

Enters the blood and combines with haemglobin combines more readily than oxygen

Forms carboxyhaemglobin

Reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood

When they exercise, oxygen leavels drop and the body raises the heart rate

Can also damage artery linnings

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