The quantity of a good or service consumers are willing and able to buy at a given price in a given time period
Factors affecting demand:
- Media image
- Substitute good
- Complementary good
- Changes in income
- State of the economy
- Demand curve shift to the right=Increase (Income increase, advertisment, price of vodka drops, price drop)
- Left = Decrease (Poor media image, price of pepsi decreases (Coke),
Supply is defined as the quantity of a product that a producer is willing and able to supply onto the market at a given price in a given time period.
- Has positive correlation (As price increases so does supply)
Factors affecting supply:
- Government policy. Can decrease or increase. Subsidy decreases costs, thus increases supply. Tariff increases costs, decreases supply. E.g. Chinese tyres.
- Access to resources. Increase, less transport costs
- Costs; raw materials, rent etc. Higher costs= less supply
- How much customers are willing to pay
- Market equilibrium= The price at which supply meets demand (Above it there is excess supply, below there is excess demand
Price Elasticity of Demand
- Measures the extent to which demand reacts to a change in price
- If PED=0, then the demand curve will be vertical, ie demand will stay the same with a price increase.
- If PED= between 1 and 0 then demand is inelastic (more vertical)
- If PED= 1 then it is unit elastic (Price changes at the same rate as demand)
- If PED= more than 1 then demand is elastic (more horizontal)
- PED can be used to:
- Predict change in demand on the revenue of a product
- Price volatility in a market following changes in supply
- Effect of government indirect tax on demand.
- Used to help determine price if the price is discriminating.
- % change in quantity demanded/% change in price
- New-Original/Original *100
Factors affecting PED
Existence of close substitutes:
- Will be more elastic with competition, as increase in price will decrease your demand.
- Water is much more inelastic. People will buy it no matter the price.
- Things become more elastic over time, as it takes time to adapt.
- People will make more adjustments over a longer time period.
Branding and Brand Loyalty
- These are the products that are bought without checking the price tag.
- Often high quality products. E.g. Rolex, Harley etc.
- Strong branding creates customers who buy out of loyalty rather than price.
- Peak/Off Peak travel
The Purpose of Marketing in Changing Markets
- Market Share: The share of sales in a market which one business has, normally expressed in %.
- Non-Price Competition: Includes all possible inducements to buy the product other than a price cut. E.g. Design, advertising, reliability etc.
- Market Segment: A subdivision of a market in which consumers have distinct charecteristics and preferences. E.g. Socio-Economic Group A
What are the benefits of high market share?
- Increased price. No alternative. Will have to pay a high price
- Decreased customer service= Decreased costs.
- Increased sales- Higher revenue
- Economies of scale e.g. Bulk buy discount
- Monopsony power
- Increased brand image and awareness
- Marlborough **** not advertised on F1 cars anymore
Advertising Standards Agency:
- UK's independent regulator of advertising across TV etc.
- Magners banned in 2009 because it implied that alcohol lead to success of a social occasion.
Corporate Social Responsibility:
- Accepting that organisations must take responsibility for their impacts on the community and environment, show consideration and behave ethically.
Income elasticity of Demand
- Describes the extent to which demand for a product alters as a result of a change in people's real disposable income.
- Measured by YED.
- Normal Good: Products or services which we buy more of when income rises
- Inferior Good: Products which we buy more of when income falls.
- Luxury Good: Goods that people buy when they feel better off.
- If YED = +ve: Then the product is normal or luxury
- If YED= -ve: Then the product is inferior
Growth of Markets
- Growth of Low Cost Airlines
- 50 european low cost airlines
- 8 million passengers in 1998- 59 million in 2005.
- Made it possible for those who couldn't fly before.
- EasyJet + RyanAir have 30% market share.
- The Rise of High Street Coffee Shops
- £900m a year industry
- First Starbucks opened in 1971.
- Now SB has more than 1000 branches in the UK.
- 16% market share
- Costa Coffee operates in 28 countries around the world.
- 150 high street coffee shops open in the UK each year
- The Long Tail
- Selling a large number of unique products in relatively small quantities.
- Internet has introduced it. E.g Amazon and iTunes