Economic Activities

-General Industry

-Farming Industry

-Clothing Industry

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Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Industries


These industries extract raw materials from the earth or sea 

E.g.Fishing, Coal Mining, Farming


These industries process and manufacture products from raw materials

E.g. Car Manufacturing, Iron and Steel Industry


These industries provide a service

Retailing, Teaching, Dentistry 

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Quaternary Industry

There are also quaternary industries

These industries incorporate a high degree of research and technology in their processes and employ highly qualified people

E.g. Biotechnology, Computer Programming

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The Different Types of Farming

Arable - Cultivating Crops

Pastoral - Rearing Animals

Intensive - Farming That Requires A Lot Of Inputs

Extensive - Farming That Requires A Few Inputs

Subsistence - Only Growing Enough To Feed Yourself

Commercial - Growing Produce To Sell

Mixed - Farming Both Crops Animals

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Inputs, Processes and Outputs Of Farming

Typical inputs, processes and outputs in farming: 


  • Capital
  • Technology and Labour
  • Seed, Fertiliser and Pesticides
  • Animals


  • Grazing and Milking
  • Feeding
  • Ploughing, Planting, Spraying, Fertilizing, Harvesting


  • Seeds, Crops, Milk, Profit
  • Waste Products, Manure
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different types of farming

  • arable - cultivating crops
  • pastoral - rearing animals
  • subsistence - only growing enough to feed yourself
  • intensive - requires a lot of inputs
  • extensive - requires few inputs
  • commercial - growing to sell
  • mixed - farming both crops and animals
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Inputs, processes and outputs of farming


  • labour, capital
  • seeds, animals
  • fertilizers, pesticides


  • ploughing, sowing
  • spraying, adding fertilizer
  • harvesting, grazing, milking


  • ploughing, sowing
  • spraying, adding fertilizer
  • harvesting, grazing
  • milking
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What affects the distribution of farming?

  • Climate
  • Relief
  • Labour supply
  • Soil type
  • Accessibility to the market
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The effect of climate

  • hours of sunshine
  • temperature
  • amount of rainfall
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The effect of soil

  • depth - grow better in deep soils
  • fertility - need soils with enough nutrients in them (humus)
  • texture - ratios of sand, silt and clay
  • pH - acidity
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Diversification - Why?

Diversification means branching out into activities, other than just growing crops and rearing animals, for some extra money

The Common Agricultural Policy plays farmers to 'set aside' land, which they are not allowed to use for agriculture, but they can use it for activities which attract tourism.

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Diversification - How?

  • Bed and breakfast
  • Camping sites
  • A farm shop - make their own ice-cream, cheese, jam etc....
  • Grow and sell Christmas trees
  • Petting zoo
  • Quad bike track
  • Adventure days
  • Sell firewood
  • Fishing
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Inputs, Processes and Outputs of Clothing Manufact


  • thread, needles
  • buttons, cotton
  • dye, packaging


  • stitching, packing
  • cutting, folding
  • dyeing


  • offcuts, seconds
  • shirts, trousers
  • profits
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Effects of TNCs on LEDCs


  • more employment
  • guarantees wages
  • more investment
  • improved infrastructure
  • provision of expensive equipment
  • they contribute to the multiplier effect


  • managerial jobs are filled by foreign workers
  • low wages
  • profits go overseas
  • decisions are made outside of the country
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