Dysfunctional behaviour: Explaination of DB

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Watson and Raynor: Study of classical conditioning

Aim: To see if it is possible to induce a fear of previously unfeared object, through classical condition + to see what effect time has on fear response 

Methodology: A case study undertaken on one child (Little Albert) in laboratory conditions 

Participants: Little Albert was a child of a wet nurse - a test done when he was 8 months showed a fear reaction when a steel bar was hit with a hammer

Design: a single-subject design 

Procedure: alberts baseline reaction to the stimulus was noted as having no fear response to any situation. 

Session 1. Albert was presented with a rate and at the same time a steel bar was struck just as he reached for the rate - they found that he jumped and fell forward.

Session 2. The following week Albert had 7 presentations of the rate and the loud noise - albert began to react to the rate alone by immediately crying and trying to crawl away 

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Watson and Raynor: Study of classical conditioning

Session 3. To see if the fear was transferred, albert was brought back 5 days later and presented with some toy blocks, this was a neutral stimuli that could be used to stop the fear response. Presentations were then made of a rate, rabbit, dog , seal-fur coat, cotton wool, watsons hair and a santa mask - these all caused a negative response 

Session 4. To see if time had affect the response, 5 days later albert was presented with the rat on it's own. The respinse was weaker - so they decided to 'freshen-up' the response by presenting a rat by using loud noise, this was also done to a dog and a rabbit. Albert was then taken to a lecture theatre to see if the response was the same - albert reactived negatively once again to the rat, rabbit and dog. In the different room the fear response was slight

Session 5. One month leater Albert was tested with various stimuli (same as session 3) - albert continued to show fear response 

Conclusions: Session 2 - after 5 presentations the fear response was evident,so it is possible to condition through classical conditioning. Session 3 and 4, transference of the fear had been made to the other stimuli objects. Session 5, time had not removed the fear response  

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Gottlesman and Shields: A review of recent adoptio

Aim: To review research on genetic transmissions of schizophrenia 

Method: A review of adoption and twin studies into schizophrenia, studies reviewed included: three adoption studies + five twin studies. In total 711 participants were involved. 

Procedure: The incidence of schizophrenia in adopted children and monozygotic twins was looked at from the research. This was done by comparing biological parents + siblings and adoptive parents + siblings in the adoption studies. In the twin studies the concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins was compared. An increase incidence of schizophrenia in biological relatives and higher concordance rates between monozygotic twins would indicate a gentic basis for schizophrenia. 

Findings: All three adoption studies found an increased incidence of schizo in adopted children with schizo biological parent - One study found that biological siblings of children with schizo showed a much higher percentage of schiz compared with adoptive siblings - All twins studies found higher concordance rate for schiz in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins 

Conclusions: There is obviously a significant genetic input into the onset of schiz but with concordance rates less than 100% there must be some interaction with the environment 

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Maher: Delusional thinking and perceptual disorder

Summary of theory

  • When we experience something that is strange to us we try to explain it 
  • The cognitive process used to try and explain a delusion in people with schizophrenia are exactly the same as those used by people considering normal 
  •  When a logical explaination is developed a sense of relief is expereinced 
  • If others don't agree with this explaination, then that makes us either more special or they are lying 
  • If there is no obivous external causes then it is logical to assume invisble causes 
  • Maher stresses the rationality of these thoughts given the intensity of the experiences the person has 
  • The person with schizo has no identified a strange even, decided what is the cause of it and that they are worth of having been chosen to experience it 
  • The patient has to identify whi it should happen to them 
  • They might look at guilty secrets from the past, or punishment for some monor indiscretions 

Conclusion: The person who is delusional is actually experiencing distored perceptual input that demands an explaination. Treatments involve getting the patient to modify their beliefs thier experience

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