Development gap case studies

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Trade affects on development gap

WTO- liberalise trade and remove barriers
banana trade- Dominated by large TNC's exploiting latin american workers, smaller farms on windward islands could not keep up with production
social consequences- Unions surpressed, gender discrimination, child labour, supressed human rights, deaths from chemical use
environmental consequences- 400 agrochemicals used, 4 deemed 'extremely dangerous' and reductions in biodiversity

in costa rica- 30p per banana, 1p to workers

UK attempted to trade with windward islands, tariffs placed on TNC's, who invloved WTO. USA ban on UK imports due to company power, number of farms on windward islands shrunk to 7000 from 24000

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ethnic dimensions

South Africa

apartheid ensured development gap
mean earnings:
white- 7645 Black- 775
townships created where many native people forced to live
demonstrations before world cup, people did not have runnign water yet money being spent on stadiums
many angry protests held against foriegn people from zimbabwe etc who locals see as stealing jobs

Guatemala has also experienced problems, military coop meant 200,000 indigenous people died while 76% native american population are lving in poverty.

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affect on different groups

good facilities allow for good experience at birth
this stems from money
worst mortality rate in developed world
homeless pre natal programme ensures all accounted for
1.6million children homeless

Seirra Leone-
1 in 8 die at childbirth
fewer than 200 doctors serve 6 million
lack of peace and stability means less infrastrucure
19 of 20 worst places in world to be born are in africa
worst place for infant mortality

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development gap advantages and disadvantages for b

main issues- Pollution- 460,000 die each year from air quality
fertilisers cause eutrophication, 44% of 358 companies violate pollution regulations, 16 of 20 most polluted cities in the world in china
Widen Developement gap- Beijing and shanghai lead way in terms of income, rural deprevation means people move to cities, HDI and GDP follows same patterns, social ineuqalities between rural and urban areas cause unrest

economic- Positives- High FDI, more employment, particularly manufacturing, increase GDP and rise av wages, trade surplus is huge
Negatives- Rising wages could force firms away, appreciating currency=higher living costs, intl concerns over products

social- Positives- more money for healthcare, improved working conditions and non money benefits eg holidays, more people go abroad
Negatives- Largest rural urban mig, ageing pop due to one child policy, terrible working wages

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Effects on Megacities

Problems- Rapid development, poorly built homes, limited and expensive water, limited sanitation, informal and unreliable employment, lack of rubbish collection, social problems, few services

economic super regions have developed EG hong kong, shenzhen, Guangzhou 120million people
40 mega regions = 14% world pop, 65% economic acitvity, 85% scientific invention

huge inequality in mumbai, sao paulo etc

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impacts on rural communities

1) isolation -
2-6 hours away from main city, long journeys bruise fruit and prevent higer income. 12 Hours from capital
2) rural poverty-
85% subsistance farmers, lack of agricultural trainign
3) education and womens rights-
60% males, 42% females literacy rates, women often drop out to work
4) health-
HIV, females 57% males 43%, only 40% recieve drug treatment
9% households in Uganda have electricity, firewood can take hours to collect

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aid and investment

offical aid- ODA, bi and multi lateral
advantages- Top down- controlled planning, consider wide ranging impacts, expensive projects funded
bottom up- appropraiet tech can solve grass routes problems
Disadvantages- Top down- expensive due to conditionalities, environmental impact, corruption could prevent full use, lack of participating planning
bottom up- small scale, not all money goes to those who need, donor fatigue

examples- top down- akosombo -
advantages- created lake volta, worlds largest artificial lake, allowed HEP and aluminum smelter, allowes use of bauxite reserves, $69million UK and USA funding
disadvantages- profits go back to USA so Ghana cannot reinvest and has been closed due to drought

examples- bottom up- ugandan aid- advantages- farmers colluding, actionaid in lcoal communities helpign to fight poverty, people sell 26KM away to gain higher profit
Disadvantages- too small scale, needs wider reach

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