Population and trends
Population - the number of people inhabiting a certain area/space - measured by census.
Demography - study of characteristics of human population:
- Size - The UK's population is increasing - immigrants and asylum seekers. Family sizes however are smaller.
- Vital statistics
Declining Fertility Rates - the ratio of live births, per 1000 of the population, per year.
There has been a decline in recent years.
Declining Mortality Rates - ratio of deaths, per 1000 population, per year. This is also declining, as people are living longer. Largely the result of a longer life expectancy.
Migration to the UK- immigration: The migration to a place/country of which you are not a native, and then settle there.
More people than ever are entering the UK, to either escape prosecution in their own countries, or for a better standard of living for their family.
Working Age Population - Will fall in size as baby boomers of 1950's move into retirement and are replaced by the smaller generations of people born since mid 1970.
Role of Women in Society - Many women are choosing to have children later in life - and therefore fewer children. 1/4 of women are choosing to remain childless.
- effective contraceptive methods are widely available and allow women to make the choice.
- the desire for material possessions means people are delaying having children until they have accumulated eg a house/car/fulfilled ambitions to travel.
Advances in Hygiene and Medicine - Over the last 200 years - reduced mortalitity, especially infant mortality. (Death rate during first year of life). Drug treatments developed for previously fatal conditions - preventative medicine eg VACCINESreduced incidences of life threatening conditions.
New diagnostic equipment - detect conditions quicker, treatment more likely to be effective.
New surgical procedures - extend life - previously impossible.
Improved diet and greater understanding of the health risks eg SMOKING, ALCOHOL,LACK OF EXERCISE.