Brittleness and Toughness
How much a material breaks with a comparatively smooth fracture.
Examples: glass, pottery, brick.
Toughness is the opposite of brittleness.
How strong and durable a material is.
Examples: rubber, aluminium.
Elasticity and Flexibility
How much a material is able to change its length, volume, or shape in response to a force and to recover to its original form once the force is removed.
Examples: rubber bands, springs.
How much a material is able to bend without breaking.
Density, Porousness and Malleability
Mass per unit volume - how much mass is in a particular amount of space.
How easily it is for water/air to pass into or through every part of a substance.
How capable a material is of being shaped by pressure.
Examples: aluminium foil.
Stiffness, Hardness and Ductility
How difficult a material is to bend or flex.
How easily a material can be scratched.
Examples: ceramics, concrete.
How easily a material can be drawn out into a wire/thread.
Examples: gold, silver.