Definitions of material properties

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Brittleness and Toughness

Brittleness

How much a material breaks with a comparatively smooth fracture.

Examples: glass, pottery, brick.


Toughness

Toughness is the opposite of brittleness.

How strong and durable a material is.

Examples: rubber, aluminium.

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Elasticity and Flexibility

Elasticity

How much a material is able to change its length, volume, or shape in response to a force and to recover to its original form once the force is removed.

Examples: rubber bands, springs.

Flexibility

How much a material is able to bend without breaking.

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Density, Porousness and Malleability

Density

Mass per unit volume - how much mass is in a particular amount of space.

Porousness

How easily it is for water/air to pass into or through every part of a substance.

Malleability

How capable a material is of being shaped by pressure.

Examples:  aluminium foil.

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Stiffness, Hardness and Ductility

Stiffness

How difficult a material is to bend or flex.

Hardness

How easily a material can be scratched.

Examples: ceramics, concrete.

Ductility

How easily a material can be drawn out into a wire/thread.

Examples: gold, silver.

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