AS Level Physics Revision Notes

Okay, I've finally managed to finish these notes for you people (and for myself of course :p) so I've thrown them up to assist anyone who's got an exam in um... less than a week :O

I hope that they help and such and it covers topics such as Units, Symbols, Density, Waves, Optics and much more!

Kathryn.C

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  • Created by: Kathryn.C
  • Created on: 03-01-11 20:32
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UNITS, SYMBOLS AND NUMBERS
5 BASE UNITS:
Base Quantity Base Unit Base Symbol
Length Metre m
Mass Kilogram kg
Time Seconds s
Current Ampere A
Temperature Kelvin K (100°C + 273 = K)
Area = length x width m2 Average speed = distance/time m s1
Volume = length x width x height m3 Density = mass/volume MV1 = kgm3
DERIVED UNITS:
Unit Quantity Base Unit Unit Name Unit Symbol
Force kg m s2 Newton N
Power kg m2 s3 Watt W
Energy kg m2 s2…read more

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MOTION
SPEED:
Definition: CHANGE IN DISTANCE PER UNIT TIME
Average speed = distance/time
Measured in: m s1
SCALAR QUANTITY ­ has size but not direction
DISPLACEMENT:
Definition: DISTANCE MEASURED IN A STRAIGHT LINE FROM A SPECIFIC POINT
Symbol: `s'
VECTOR QUANTITY ­ has both size and direction
VELOCITY:
Definition: CHANGE IN DISPLACEMENT PER UNIT TIME
Velocity = change in displacement/ change in time s/ t
Measured in: m s1
VECTOR QUANTITY ­ has both size and direction
GRADIENT:
Change in Y/ change in X Y…read more

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DYNAMICS
FOUR FORCES IN NATURE:
Forces Detail
STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE Hold Protons and Neutrons together in the nucleus
WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE Involved in radioactive decay C14
ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE Responsible for attractive and repulsive forces
between atoms e.g.…read more

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In physics, mechanical work is done when a force moves
Work equation: W = Fs
Effect a force has in a particular direction is called a COMPONENT
Require a COMPONENT TRIANGLE to calculate a component
COMPONENT TRIANGLE: a rightangled triangle in which the force (F) forms the hypotenuse
W = FsCOS or W = FsSIN
ENERGY:
POTENTIAL ENERGY: energy stored within a system as a result of position or condition
KINETIC ENERGY: energy of motion
Any system or object that has energy has the ability…read more

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VECTORS, MOMENTS AND PROJECTILES
VECTORS:
Definition: A QUANTITY WHICH HAS DIRECTION AS WELL AS SIZE
Components of a Vector Calculation: Fx = Fcos° horizontal component
Fy = Fsin° vertical component
Vector Diagram: tail of one arrow starts at the head of the previous arrow
CENTRE OF MASS OF A BODY:
Definition: THE POINT THROUGH WHICH A SINGLE FORCE ON THE BODY DOES NOT CAUSE THE
BODY TO TURN
MOMENTS:
Definition: MOMENT = FORCE x PERPENDICULAR DISTANCE FROM THE PIVOT TO THE LINE OF
ACTION OF…read more

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WAVES
WAVES:
Definition: A WAVE IS A DISTURBANCE WHICH CAN TRAVEL, USUSALLY TRANSFERRING
ENERGY
Wave Speed: DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY A WAVE FRONT PER UNIT TIME
Continuous wave: IN A FULL CYCLE OF VIBRATION, ONE POINT IN THE MEDIUM MOVES FROM
ITS EQUILIBRIUM POSITION TO ONE EXTREME TO THE OTHER EXTREME
AND BACK TO THE EQUILIBRIUM POSITION
Transverse Waves: DIRECTION OF VIBRATION IS AT 90 TO THE DIRECTION THE WAVE IS
TRAVELLING
Longitudinal Waves: MEDIUM OSCILLATES PARALLEL IN THE SAME DIRECTION THE WAVE IS
TRAVELLING
Mechanical…read more

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Trough + Crest = cancelled (straight line) destructive interference
COHERENT SOURCES:
Definition: COHERENT SOURCES OF WAVES ARE SOURCES WHICH ARE POSITIONED SIDE BY
SIDE, HAVE THE SAME FREQUENCY AND ARE VIBRATING IN PHASE
Need to determine the number of wavelengths from one wave source to a particular point
Determine the number of wavelengths from other wave source to same particular point
PATH DIFFERENCE: extra distance travelled by the wave from one source compared with the wave from
the other source.…read more

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OPTICS
LAW OF REFLECTION:
Angle of incidence = angle of reflection
Angles of incidence and reflection are measured between the ray and the normal
REFRACTION:
Definition: THE BENDING OF WAVES DUE TO A CHANGE IN SPEED
When a beam of light travels from a less dense to a denser material, the beam is bent towards the normal.…read more

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MATERIALS
DENSITY:
Definition: DENSITY IS MASS PER UNIT VOLUME
Most commonly used units for density are g cm3 and kg m3
HOOKE'S LAW:
For a material which obeys Hooke's law the extension is DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL to the stretching force
PROVIDED the limit of the proportionality has not been exceeded.
A material which obeys Hooke's law would therefore have a force vs.…read more

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