Cultural changes: How did the provision of education change?

  • Created by: f_grant
  • Created on: 19-05-19 14:59

Humanism and the New Learning

  • Study of carefully edited Latin and Greek text
  • Influenced by Erasmus - large following
  • Polydore Virgil - Italian humanist commisioned to write a history of England by Henry VII.
  • John Fisher founded colleges at Cambridge with Margaret Beaufort
  • 300 students at uni under Henry, increased to 700 under Elizabeth
  • Grammar schools - St Pauls School set up 1509. 124 set up by 1530. Arithmetic added. Founded with religious intentions. Some able to provide free spaces for ended but generally gentry dominated. Promoted religious and civil loyalty and social harmony.
  • Elizabeth's reign - 136 new grammar schools founded - only for boys. Girls in noble and gentry families educated at home, learn how to run a household.
  • Petty and charity schools for poor only taught people to read not write.
  • 1558 literacy rates - 20% men, 5% women
  • Universities - sons would follow fathers. Culture of elite education developed as did desire for books.
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The Reformation

  • Commonwealth men e.g John Hales wished to reform society and the church
  • Protestantism emphasised the importance of the Bible in English and teaching everyone to read
  • 18 schools founded after dissolutions 1535-47. Bishops instructed to set up schools but few actually did
  • Lost more than gained - loss of endowments meant loss of free places
  • Protestantism under Edward led to refounding of schools. Elizabeth endowed 136 grammar schools
  • Poor standards - rote learning and beatings
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Concerns over social disorder

  • Schooling should help eliminate poverty and aid the economy
  • Royal injunction blamed poor education for increasing crime
  • Changes reflected need for well educated ruling class
  • Gentleman could show knowledge by giving 'exempla' instances from classical literature - education previously the preserve of the clergy
  • 'The Governor' Thomas Elyot 1531 - mentioned manners, book learning and past times of a gentleman
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