consequence of development gap-migration
Aswell as positive, there are negative consequences of development gap. As countries undergo economic development, the development gap within the country may widen as the wealth is unequally distributed and the rich become richer whilst the poor become poorer. This can result in migration (international or internal).
International migration involves; immigration- people move into to a more developed country to live.
Emmigration- people move out of their own country, in search for a better life elsewhere.Internal migration involoves; moving within a country (one way), for e.g, rural to urban or core to periphary.
- the source countrey experiences ageing population as young, skilled workers emmigrate.
- This leaves fewer people to develop countries resources, less citizens for gouvernment to tax and lower spending power.
- Westernisation of reternees, cultural dilution or source country.
- In host countries- racial/cultural tentions .
- increased pressure on resources if immagrants are not skilled, end up unemployed and homless. End up in low paid jobs.
- Areas dominated by a particular group leads to ghettoisation and segregation
benefits of migration
- Skilled, young immagrants strengthen workforce of host countrey.
- Higher paid jobs and increased taxation due to higher population in host countrey. More money for development.
- Increase multicultuarlism in host counntrey with diverse foods, music, clothes, language ect
- Immagrants fill in unwanted, low paid jobs that citizens of host countrey dont want to do.
- Decining or ageing population on host country balanced due to immagrants.
- Decline in rapidly increasing population in source countrey, as people emmigrate.
- remmitances sent home to source countrey, where they can invest in homes and communities ect.
Migration in Equador
Immigration; People moving into country
- Between 60-120 thousand of Peruvian and Columbian immigrante into Euador, especially after change to the US dollar (higher value)
- Peruvians are illegal immagrants and Columbians are refugees, escaping armed conflict and hardship from drug related activities.
- There is social and cultural conflict between columbians and Equadorians. Columbians are stereotyped to be criminals, drug runners and rebels.
- Perurians also face discrimination and conflict, they often have lower paid jobs/undesiable jobs
Emmigration; People move out of their country
- There was a rapid increase in emmigration due to oil price collapsing
- Most of the mney from remmitances are used for basic house needs
- children who migrate to the USA are often discriminated against
- Those who return back home from the US find it difficult to reintegrate with community. Their sucess of the migrants families can lead to resntment by other members of the community.
- Many emmigrate illegally and move to the USA, leaving loved ones behind.
consequences of development gap- environmental
Pollution in China;
- Increased economic development (increased factories, transport) has led to a rise in pollution and deepend Chinas ecological footprint (the amount of resources needed to provide a person with basic needs)
- The countrey relies on energy-intensive heavy industry and urbanisation to fuel economic growth.
- Rapidly increasing large-sacle coal industry, the main cause of air pollution in china.
- The world bank called 'Linfen City' the most polluted city in the world
- Many factories produce waste such as sulfur dioxide from burning fossil fuels, and pollute rivers with effluent (liquid waste) and there is an increase in pollutants (pesticides) caused by agricultural processes.
- 30% of China suffers from acid rain and many cities are permenatly coverd in a toxic smog
- Increased car ownership and congestion (also transport for coal and other minarals), has contributed to smog and air pollution.
- 300,000 die each yr from air pollution- due to heart desease and lung cancer. Also increase in indoor air pollution.
- China is the largest consumer of cement in the world and largest producer and consumer of alluminium
- The yellow river contains toxic chemicals/effluents caused by riverside chemical plants. This is getting into the human food chain, as use it for domestic purposes.
- River pollution (70% of chinas rivers) and acid rain is affecting agriculture.
- 70% of chinese cities cant keep up with ther air qualitiy standards