Describe LOP Theory- Craik & Lockhart 1972
- Craik and Lockhart (1972) produced a theory to explain how memory works.
- Their aim was to explain why some information is better remembered than others.
- They suggested that how well a piece of information is remembered depends on how it is processed.
- The way we process information depends upon the type of information and its relevance to us.
Information Processing: They suggested three levels at which information is processed.
- Structural processing- processing information accroding to its appearance.
- Phonetic processing- processing information according to its sound.
- Semantic processing- processign information accrording to its meaning
- Craik and Lockhart suggested that we have a central processor that handles information and determines how it is processed.
- Semantic processing is the deepest form of information processing.
- Structural processing is the shallowest form of information processing and is likely to result in the least material remembered.
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Evaluate LOP Theory- Craik & Lockhart 1972
- Evidence to support theory- Craik & Tulving 1975 supports the theory. Also support from brain scanning studies which shows that when material is semantically processed, there is more brain activity which may relate to depper processing.
- Application to real life- The theory has been used to enhance learning and revision. Students who clarify their understanding of a subject tend to do better in exams than those who process the material more shallowly by minimal reading.
- Reductionist- The theory only describes rather than explain memory. It fails to suggest anything about the way informatiion is stored as it is simply concerned with the processing of information, thus is reductionist.
- Individual Differences- The theory does explain individual differences by referring to the depth of processing and how some of these memories are strong and some are weak.
- Nature/Nuture debate- The theory has elements of both nature and nuture. We are all born with the ability to process and store information which supportsthe nature side of the debate. However, we learn how to respond through various types of stimulation from the environment from parents. This is a strength as memory can be explained by both nature and nuture.
- Reliability- The experiments have been well controlled with standardised procedures allowing for a clear cause and effect relationship between LOP and memory recall.
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