SOFT ENGINEERING: COAXING NATURAL PROCESSES ALONG.
- sand & shingle added to beaches from elsewhere
e.g. dredged from offshore.
- creates wide beaches, which reduce erosion of cliffs more than narrow beaches.
- reducing slope angle & planting vegetation/sticking stakes & old tree trunk into beach to stabilise sand.
- also creates wider beaches = reduced cliff erosion.
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- sand dunes created/restored by nourishment/stabilisation of sand.
- they provide a barrier between land & sea, absorbing wave energy & preventing flooding & erosion.
LAND USE MANAGEMENT
- important for dune regeneration.
- vegetation needed to stabilise dune can easily be trampled/destroyed, leaving dune vulnerable to erosion.
- wooden walkways across dunes, fenced-off areas that prevent walkers/cyclists from accessing dunes = reduced vegetation loss.
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CREATING MARSHLAND FROM MUDFLATS
- can be encouraged by planting vegetation
- vegetation stabilises sediment & stems & leaves, reducing wave speed.
- therefore, waves' erosive power & how far they reach inland are reduced, leading to less flooding of the area around the marsh.
COASTAL REALIGNMENT (MANAGED RETREAT)
- breaching existing defence, allowning the sea to flood the land behind.
- e.g. breaching sea walls @ Holderness.
- over time, vegetation will colonise the land & it will become marhsland.
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