Plants can be cloned by two things:
- Tissue Culture
Cloning from cuttings involves gardeners taking cuttings from good parents and planting them elsewhere to produce genetically identical coppies.
Tissue culture is where a few plant cells are put in a growth medium with hormones and they grow into new plants. These are clones of te parent plant.
These two methods are good as they are both cheap and quick to do
Animal cloning can be done in two ways:
- Embryo Transplants
- Adult cell cloning
Farmers produce cloned off spring from their best bull and cow using embryo transplants.
Sperm cells are taken from a prize bull and egg cells taken from a prize cow. Then sperm the artificially fertilise an egg cell.
The embryo is split many times to form many of them
The cloned embryos are planted into other cows where they grow into babies that will be genetically identical to each other.
Adult cell cloning is done by taking an egg cell and removing its genetic material.
A complete set of chromosomes from the cell of an adult are then inserted into the empy egg cell which will grow into an embryo.
Genetic engineering is moving useful genes from one organism's chromosome using enzymes.
A useful gene is cut from one organisms chromosome using enzymes .
Enzymes are then used to cut another organism's chromosome and then to insert the useful gene. This is called gene splicing
This method can be used to transfer useful genes into animals and plants at the very early stages of their development.