Climate Change 11th September - 19th September

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Early Volcanic Atmosphere

Methane + (early) Oxygen > Carbon Dioxide + Ammonia + Steam

  CH4      +         O2            >         CO2           +     NH3      +   H20

Carbon dioxide:

  • Dissolves in to ocean & solidifies as shells on sea creatures (calcium carbonate)
  • Creatures die > sedimentary rock formed eg. limestone, chalk
  • Used in photosynthesis > becomes absorbed plants die stored in fossil fuels
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Early Volcanic Atmosphere (continued)

Ammonia:

  • reacted with oxygen & denitryfying bacteria in soil

Steam:

  • condenses as Earth cools into oceans

Atmosphere now:

Oxygen > 21%          Nitrogen 78%

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Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere

  • Co2 dissolves into oceans
  • Plants use for photosynthesis

1. Fish eats plant > fish dies

                            > CaCO3 from bones forms in to sedimentary rock

                            > CH4 forms as fossil fuels

2. Plant dies > leftover glucosse (C6H12O6)

                    > forms CaCO3 (sedimentary rock)

                    > CH4 forms fossil fuels

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CaCO3

                                     CaCO3

Crushed Chalk             

Pumice     

Limestone                     Yes

Marble                           Yes

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How Gases are Removed from Atmosphere

Methane:

  • Reacts with oxygen to form C02 & H20
  • CH4 + 202 > CO2 + H20

Amonia:

  • Reacts with oxygen to produce nitrogen
  • 4NH3 + 3O2 > 2N2 + 6H20

Carbon Dioxide:

  • Absorbed by plants for photosynthesis & dissolved in oceans
  • C02 + H20 > H2CO3 > HCO3 + H
  • 6CO2 +6H20 > C6H1206 + 6CO2
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Nitrogen in the Early Atmosphere

  • Most likely released from volcanoes
  • Levels remain high as it is formed when ammonia reacts with oxygen
  • Difficult to remove as very unreactive gas
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Climate Change

Greenhouse gases:

  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Methane
  • Water / steam

> Electromagnetic radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere

> Earth absorbs short-wave ultra-violet radiation

> Greenhouse gases absorb long-wave infra-red radiation trapping heat energy in atmosphere 

> The Earth is cooled by emitting these rays so hence the temp increases

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Climate Change (continued)

Temp peaks every 100,000 years so some scientists not worried..

Carbon dioxide:

  • burning fossil fuels & trees releases it
  • as temp increases sea can absorb less CO2

Methane:

  • cows, swamps & landfill sites release it
  • rise in population = need more cows & landfil

Water vapour:

  • evaporation of seas = greater amount of H2O in atmosphere (greenhouse gas)
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Climate Change Solutions

  • use renewable energy
  • use biofuels instead of fossil fuels (carbon neutral)
  • electric cars
  • carbon caps/tax

Carbon capture:

  • collect CO2 & react to from carbonate rocks
  • store underground

Carbon neutral > only release the same amount of CO2 than they absorb for photosynthesis so do not add to CO2 count

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Pollutants

Sulfur dioxide    > comes from volcanoes & burning fossil fuels

                            > reacts with rain to form acid rain - damges trees &                                 aquatic life

Nitrogen oxides > nitrogen reacts oxyge, lightning strikes & plane or                                  car engines

                           > acid rain & cause asthma attacks

Carbon dioxide > fuels being burnt

                           > climate change

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Pollutants (continued)

Carbon monoxide > fuels burnt with insufficient oxygen

                               > binds with haemoglobin in red blood cells                                              effecting respiration

Particulates          > unburnt ydrocarbons in petrol & disease

                               > pass through cell membranes causing cancer &                                     causes global dimming

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