Circulatory and Gas Exchange System Keywords

Human Biology key terms and words for revision. 

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  • Created by: Parmz
  • Created on: 15-03-13 20:16

Diastole

When the heart muscle is relaxed and the atria of the heart, and then the ventricles are filling with blood. 

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Atria systole

The muscular wall of the atria contracts. This pushes the blood from the atria into the ventriles, so that the atria are now emptied. This pushes the atrio-ventricular valves fully open. 

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Ventricular Systole

The muscular walls of the ventricles contract. The atrio-ventricular valves are forced shut. They can only open one way this works accordingly due to the pressure. 

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Myogenic

Stimulates by itself 

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Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Is used to monitor heart function. 

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Ventricular Fibrillation

There is no P wave and no QRS wave, this is because the muscle in the heart wall is not contracting in a coordinated way: likely that this person has had a heart attack and is certain to be unconscious and needs urgent medical attention or he will die. 

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Atrial Fibrillation

Small and unclear P wave, deep S wave in 3d indicates ventricular hypertrophy which is an increase in muscle thickness. 

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Stroke Volume

The volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in one cardiac cycle. Normally 60-80cm3. 

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Cardiac Output

Is the volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in one minute. This figure is normally 4-8dm3min-1. 

Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate 

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Mass transport

Is when everything is moving in a stream in one direction. 

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Closed system

Blood stays in vessels at all times unless injured. 

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Hypertension

High blood pressure: 140/90mmHg

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Hypotension

Low blood pressure 90/60mmHg

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Normal blood pressure

120/80mmHg

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Tissue

A group of similar cells specialised to carry out the same function. 

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Structure of lungs and breathing system

Breathe in -> trachea -> two bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveoli

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Squamous epithelium

Is a lining tissue of flattened cells. 

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Organ

Is a structure made up of different kinds of tissue. 

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Surfactant

Liquid lining the lungs stops them from sticking together and makes it easier to inflates also has an antibacterial effect. 

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Tidal Volume

The volume of air breathed in and out with a normal breathe, normally around 0.5dm3.

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Vital Capacity

When you breathe out as much air as possible and the breathe out as much air as possible normally about 3.5dm3

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Residual volume

When you breathe out as much as you can the small amount left that prevents your lungs from sticking together normally about 1.5dm3

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Spirometer

An apparatus that can be used to measure lung volumes. 

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Forced expiratory volume per second

The volume of air that can be breathed out in the first second of forced breathing out. 

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Peak expiratory flow rate

The maximum rate at which air can be forcibly breathed out through the mouth. 

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Respiratory arrest

When a person stops breathing but their heart still beats 

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