Child Language Acquisition-Writing

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Stages of Writing


Letter like forms

Copied letters

Childs name and string of letters




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Kroll's Stages & Perera's Ages.

Preparation - up to 6 years - Learn the motor skills to write and a simple undertsnading of the spelling system

Consolidation - 7/8 years - Child writes as the speak using declaratives and the connective 'and'. Some incomplete sentences may occur

Differentiation - 9/19 years - Awareness of the difference between writing and speech and an understanding of different purposes. Contains alot of mistakes

Integration - mid-teens - Develops a personal voice

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Rothery's Categories.

Observation/comment - Writer makes an observantion and then uses an evaluative comment.

Recount - Usually a chronological sequence of events, using the orientation-event-reorientation structure. Uses the pronoun 'I'.

Report - Factual/objective description of events, non chronological.

Narrative - A story genre using the orientation-complication-resolution-coda structure.

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Britton's Modes.

Expressive - First mode to develop because it resembles speech and is from the first person's perspective converying personal preferences.

Poetic - Develops gradually and is encouraged early due to its creativity. Contains rhyme, rhythm, alliteration, adjectives and similies.

Transactional - Develops last, around secondary school for third person, impersonal essay writing.

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Barclay's Stages.

1 - Scribbling stage - Random marks on a page accompanied by speech

2 - Mock handwriting stage - Writing and drawings, wavy lines showing understanding of lineation and cursive writing

3 - Mock letters - Letters become separate things

4 - Conventional letters - Writing name as thei first word and able to write letters but cannot read them yet

5 - Invented spelling stage - Child spells in their own way which they understand

6 - Appropriate/phonetic spelling stage - When child learns to attach spelling with the sounds of words

7 - Correct spelling stage - Correct spelling

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Spelling Stages.

Pre-phonemic - Imitate writing, scribbling and some letters decipherable

Semic phonemic - Link letter shapes and sounds using this to write

Phonetic - Understanding phonemes can be represented as graphemes. Words become complete

Transitional - Combine phonetic knowledge with visual memory. An awareness of letter patterns and combinations

Conventional - Spell most words correctly

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Spelling Errors.

Insertion - Adding extra letters

Omission - Leaving out letters

Substitution - Substituting one letter for another

Transposition - Reversing the correct order of letters

Phonetic spelling - Using sound to guess letters and combinations

Over/under generalisations of spelling rules - Using spelling rules when not needed or not using rules when they are

Silet (key) sounds - Writing only the key sounds

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Ways A Child Spells.

Doubling consonants

Spell phonetically

Stressed and unstressed letters

Vowel combinations

Suffixing and prefixing

Initial letter

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Cohesive Features In Writing.

Connectives                                              Order of the text

Punctuation                                               Tenses used

Paragraphs                                               Headings/Sub-headings

Consistency of audience                          Anaphoric referencing

Cataphoric referencing                             Continuity of style

Conventions followed                               Structure

Illustrations                                                Layout

Consistency in sentence length

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