Stages of Writing
Letter like forms
Childs name and string of letters
Kroll's Stages & Perera's Ages.
Preparation - up to 6 years - Learn the motor skills to write and a simple undertsnading of the spelling system
Consolidation - 7/8 years - Child writes as the speak using declaratives and the connective 'and'. Some incomplete sentences may occur
Differentiation - 9/19 years - Awareness of the difference between writing and speech and an understanding of different purposes. Contains alot of mistakes
Integration - mid-teens - Develops a personal voice
Observation/comment - Writer makes an observantion and then uses an evaluative comment.
Recount - Usually a chronological sequence of events, using the orientation-event-reorientation structure. Uses the pronoun 'I'.
Report - Factual/objective description of events, non chronological.
Narrative - A story genre using the orientation-complication-resolution-coda structure.
Expressive - First mode to develop because it resembles speech and is from the first person's perspective converying personal preferences.
Poetic - Develops gradually and is encouraged early due to its creativity. Contains rhyme, rhythm, alliteration, adjectives and similies.
Transactional - Develops last, around secondary school for third person, impersonal essay writing.
1 - Scribbling stage - Random marks on a page accompanied by speech
2 - Mock handwriting stage - Writing and drawings, wavy lines showing understanding of lineation and cursive writing
3 - Mock letters - Letters become separate things
4 - Conventional letters - Writing name as thei first word and able to write letters but cannot read them yet
5 - Invented spelling stage - Child spells in their own way which they understand
6 - Appropriate/phonetic spelling stage - When child learns to attach spelling with the sounds of words
7 - Correct spelling stage - Correct spelling
Pre-phonemic - Imitate writing, scribbling and some letters decipherable
Semic phonemic - Link letter shapes and sounds using this to write
Phonetic - Understanding phonemes can be represented as graphemes. Words become complete
Transitional - Combine phonetic knowledge with visual memory. An awareness of letter patterns and combinations
Conventional - Spell most words correctly
Insertion - Adding extra letters
Omission - Leaving out letters
Substitution - Substituting one letter for another
Transposition - Reversing the correct order of letters
Phonetic spelling - Using sound to guess letters and combinations
Over/under generalisations of spelling rules - Using spelling rules when not needed or not using rules when they are
Silet (key) sounds - Writing only the key sounds
Ways A Child Spells.
Stressed and unstressed letters
Suffixing and prefixing
Cohesive Features In Writing.
Connectives Order of the text
Punctuation Tenses used
Consistency of audience Anaphoric referencing
Cataphoric referencing Continuity of style
Conventions followed Structure
Consistency in sentence length