English Language A2 Theorists

A word document outlining the theorists which can be used in an exam for all sections of the ENGB3 paper. It includes the main points of the theories, the names and which section it can be applied to (all colour coded).

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English Language Theorists/Researchers
Spoken Reading Writing Language Change
Theorist Main Points Language
Acquisition/Langua
ge Change
Chomsky Children learn language at a similar pace Acquisition - Spoken
Critical period ­ 2 to 7
Learn more language than needed
Human only characteristic
Share similarities ­ "universal grammar"
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Language acquisition is a biological inevitability
Virtuous Errors ­ when children make a mistake by
over-generalising or over-applying a rule to words (e.g.
geeses, mans, brokened, much more better)
Skinner Behaviourist theory Acquisition - Spoken
Piaget Language is closely connected to other aspects of a child's Acquisition - Spoken
psychological development
Comes in 4 different stages: Sensorimoter, Pre-operation,
concrete operational, formal operational
Sensorimoter ­ 2+, the child experiences the physical world
Pre-operation ­ 2-7, become more competent
Concrete operational ­ 7-11, think logically
Formal operational ­ 11+, abstract skill development
Jean Labelling ­ linking words to objects Acquisition - Spoken
Aitchison Packaging ­ exploring labels (where they can be applied) ­
over/under extension
Network building ­ links between connections (opposites,
hypernyms/hyponyms)
Roger Similar grammatical relationships were formed in language Acquisition ­ Spoken
Brown and cultures
Types of meaning relation in two-word utterances ­
Agent/action, entity/attribute, entity/location,
possessor/possessed, nomination, recurrence, negation &
action/entity
Order of inflections ­ verb ending (ing), prepositions (in/on),
plural (s), irregular past tense (run/ran), possessive (s),
articles (the/a), regular past tense (ed), 3rd person singular
verb ending (s), auxiliary (be)

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Jean Berko `Wug' experiment Acquisition ­ Spoken
Showed children a weird animal called a `Wug'
Showed a picture of two of the animals
If a child had learned plurals then they automatically
responded with "two wugs"
Ursula Negatives ­ 3 stages Acquisition - Spoken
Bellugi Stage 1 ­ uses `no' or `not' at the beginning or end of the
sentences (e.g. no juice)
Stage 2 ­ moves `no' or `not' to middle of the sentences
(e.g.…read more

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Lev Play is linked to cognitive and social development Acquisition - Reading
Vygotski Young children use props as `pivots' to support play, but will
use their imagination as they get older
Also role-play adult behaviours
Catherine Children adopt roles and identities by acting out story lines Acquisition - Reading
Garvey and inventing objects
Links to Halliday ­ imaginative function
Play together as its fun but also as it practices social
interaction and negation skills
Social dramatic play ­ involves social and dramatic play that
begins…read more

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Differentiation ­ 9/10, awareness of writing as separate
from speech emerges ­ stronger understanding of writing
for audiences
Integration ­ mid-teens, `personal voice' in writing ­
controlled writing with appropriate linguistic choices made
(essay writing)
Rothery Categories for evaluating children's writing Acquisition - Writing
Observation/comment ­ the writer makes an observation
and follows with an evaluative comment or mixes with the
observation
Recount ­ chronological sequence of events, usually follows
a set pattern (orientation, event, reorientation)
Report ­ factual and objective description of things
Narrative…read more

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Set the tone for 18th century to making English a pure and
standard form.…read more

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danamustrevise

So helpful for me thank u 

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