Child Development


What is Child Development

Child development is the process of growth and change from conception to adolescence.

1 of 9

Up to 1 year

4 weeks - startled by loud noises.

6 weeks - can sustain eye contact.  Responds to family with a smile.

8 months - 'for me' mode of experiencing reality.  Can sit unsupported.  Prefers to be held by a family member.

12 months - Can begin learning through imitation.  Cries when left by main carer.

2 of 9

1-2 years

14 months - walks alone.

15 months - likes to please carers.

2 years:

  • Has temper tantrums.
  • Uses objects in an imaginative way. 
  • Signs of embarrassment.
  • Uses words to express themselves.
  • Relates to members of own family.
3 of 9

3-6 years

  • Uses language and have real conversations.
  • Developing social skills.
  • More autonomy from parents.
  • Can use representations in play.

3 years: Limited understanding of time and number.

5 years: Can demonstrate inflicting emotions in expression and language.  Obeys adults.

6 years: Can provide practical care for animals and others.  Experiences guilt and shame.

4 of 9


  • Represents a period of prolonged teenage turmoil.
  • Teenagers often cited as having an inability to make rational decisions.
  • In search of self.
5 of 9

Piaget Sensorimotor Stage

Birth - 2 years old

  • Characterised by failure to differentiate between self and surroundings.
  • 4-8 months can pick up and shake a rattle but has no awareness of object permanence.
  • 8-12 months achieves the desired effect through action.  Achieves object permanence.  Fails the A not B test.
  • 18-24 months infants mental representation dominated over actions.  Can conceive an object as independent of the self.
6 of 9

Piaget Pre-Operational Stage

2-7 years

  • Able to see things from someone else's point of view.
  • Unable to understand the world as they are intuitive and highly subjective.
  • Fail to understand the underlying reality remains constant despite changes in appearance.
  • Non-logical thinking
  • Conservation experiment - don't understand the height, width, quantities etc.  Can't conserve liquid, number mass or length until 6/7 years old.
7 of 9

Piaget Concrete Operational Stage

7-11 years

  • Can solve problems in a principled way.  Pass conservation and  3 mountain tasks.
  • Cannot handle imagined or hypothetical problems.
  • Not good at tasks situated in reality.
8 of 9

Piaget Formal Operational Stage

12+ years

  • Develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.
9 of 9


No comments have yet been made

Similar Nursing resources:

See all Nursing resources »See all Child Development resources »