Chemistry Module 1

All of Module 1. 

Chemistry Module 1

Fundamental Ideas - 1.1 Atoms, Elements and Compounds

Each element is made of one type of atom.  These are represented by chemical symbols e.g Na for Sodium, K for Potassium. The elements are arranged by columns called groups, they have similar properties in each groups.

Atoms have a tiny nucleus containing Protons and Neutrons and outer shells/layers containing Electrons.

When elements react, their atoms join with atoms of other elements. Compounds are formed when two or more elements combine together.


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Chemistry Module 1

Fundamental Ideas - 1.2 Atomic Structure

The nucleus contains two types of particle - Protons and Neutrons. Protons have a PPositive Charge, Neutrons have No Charge. The outer shells/layers of an atom contain Electrons. Electrons have a negative charge. 

Electrons move around the nucleus. Overall the atom has no charge because there are always an equal amount of Protons and Neutrons. 

Atomic Number - This is the number of protons per atom. It is technically also the number of                                 electrons but since they are harder to displace, we count the number of                                       protons. This is the order atoms are arranged in The Periodic Table. 

Mass Number - This is the number of Protons and Neutrons combined. This is because both                              Protons and Neutrons have a mass of +1, whereas Electrons mass is so small                            that we call it 0. (This will always be the bigger number). 

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Chemistry Module 1

Fundamental Ideas - 1.3 The Arrangement of Electrons In Atoms

Each electron is in an Energy Shell/Level.

The Lowest Energy Shell can hold two electrons, and the others can hold eight. Electronic Structures are shown in brackets (like co-ordinates) and show each amount of elecrons per shell e.g. Oxygen (2,6) or Potassium (2,8,1) or Bromine (2,8,8,7)

 Group 1 elements (Alkaline elements) are highly reactive with Oxygen and Water.

Group 8 (0 or the Noble Gases) are unreactive. They have very stable electron arrangement.

In the Periodic Table

The rows, represent the amount of Energy Levels. Each row has an equal amount of Energy Levels.

The columns (groups) represent the amount of electrons in the outer shell. Every element in Group 1 has 1 electron in their outer shell .This is why they react similarly. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Fundamental Ideas - 1.4 Forming Bonds

When two different elements combine they form compounds. When a metal reacts with a non-metal, ions are formed. Metal atoms lose one or more electrons to form positively charged ions. The oppositely charged ions attract each other strongly and the compound has ionic bonds. 

The chemical formula of an ionic compound tells us the simplest ratio of ions in the compound. (2+ means that the other element will have to have two of it - as long as that isn't also 2+ and just singular) 

When two non-metals combine their atoms share electrons to form covalent bonds and molecules are formed.

The chemical formula of a moecule tells us the number of atoms that have bonded together in the molecule. For example. H(2)O shows that their are two Hydrogen attatched to every Oxygen. The bonds equal 1 pair of shared electrons. Line diagrams. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Fundamental Ideas - 1.5 Chemical Equations

In Chemcal reactions the reactants re-arrange themselves to form new substances - the products. 

Atoms are neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. So the number and type of atoms remains  the same before and after the reaction. So the mass of products is the total mass of reactants of reactants.

We can write and balance chemical equations. Word equations we use names, symbol equations we use the periodic symbols for the elements.

Then the rest of the page tells you how to balance equations but you're an ace at that.

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Chemistry Module 1

Rocks and Building Materials - 2.1 Limestone and It's Uses

Limestone is quarried due to it's multiple uses 

  • Cement and Calcium Oxide
  • Bulkin and Whitening Paper
  • Glass
  • Concrete (mixing cement with sand, water and aggregate)
  • etc

Limestone is mainly CaCO₃ Calcium Carbonate.

Thermal Decomposition - Breaking down by heating. Limestone forms Carbon Dioxide and                                                  Calcium Oxide after Thermal Decomposition. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Rocks and Building Materials - 2.2 Reactions of Carbonates

eactions of carbonaates react in similar ways when heated or when reacted with acids. 

Metal carbonates decompose to the metal oxide and carbon dioxide. when they are heated strongly.


Limestone is damaged by acid rain, because the acid in rain reacts with the Carbonate in the Limestone. 

Calcium Hydroxide is also called Limewater - this is used to test for Carbon Dioxide because it turns cloudy in it's presence producing insoluble calcium carbonate. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Rocks and Building Materials - 2.3 The Limestone Reaction Cycle

 Step 1

  • Calcium Carbonate (Limestone) is heated strongly
  • Thermal Decomposition occurs. It produces Carbon Dioxide which is let off, and Calcium Oxide (

Step 2

  • Water is added to the Calcium Oxide to form Calcium Hydroxide (Limewater)
  • This is an alkali so it can be used to neutralise acids. Used by farmers to neutralise acidic soils and in Industry to neutralise acidic gases. 

Step 3 

  • A little more water is added. This forms Calcium Hydroxide Solution (Slaked Lime)

Step 4 

  • Added CArbon Dioxide reacts with the Carbonate in Slaked Lime to form Calcium Carbonate. The cycle begins again. 
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Chemistry Module 1

Rocks and Building Materials - 2.4 Cement and Concret


   To make Cement, Limestone is mmixed with caly and heated strongly in a kiln. The product is ground up to make a fine powder. 


    Cement is mixed with sand and water to make mortar (that rhymes). This is used to hold bricks together in buildings


    Cement is mixed with sand, aggregate and water. Small stones or crushed rock form the agggregate. The mixture can be shaped before becoming solid. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Rocks and Building Materials - 2.5 Limestone Issues

Limestone - we are dependant on it. (dramtic I know). But it has to be quarried which caues advantages but also disadvantages. 


  • More employment oppurtunities for local people
  • Improved roads
  • more customers and trade for local businesses


  • Dust and noise pollution
  • More traffic
  • Loss of habitats for Wildlife (quarries are in areas of natural beauty)
  • Cement works are near quarries. Since it involves a kiln it uses a large area of land and a lot of energy
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Chemistry Module 1

Metals and Their Uses - 3.1 Extracting Metals

Ores - A rock that contains enough of a metal or metal compound that is worth extracting.                 Mining ores often involves digging up large amounts of rock. The ore may need to be                 concentrated before the metal is extracted. This can produce large amounts of waste               and have negative environmental impacts.

A few unreactive metals are found ins the Earth (e.g Gold). Gold can be separated from rocks by physical methods but most are metal compounds. So they have to be extracted chemically. 

Metals can be extracted from compounds via displacement using a more reactive element. Metals which are less reactive than Carbon can be extracted from their oxides by heating with carbon. A reduction takes place as carbon removes the oxygen from the oxide to produce the metal. 

LOOK THIS UP IN BOOK IF STILL UNSURE. The explanation here is a bit dodgy and I have a feeling you used to really understand it. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Metals and Their Uses - 3.2 Iron and Steels

Many Ores used to produce Iron are Iron (III) Oxide. This is reduced at high temps in a blast furnace using carbon. The iron produced is 96% iron. Iron impurities make it hard and brittle so it has very few uses as cast iron. Removing carbon and other impurities may make pure iron but that is too soft to use.

Most iron makes steel. These are alloys of iron and are much stronger (contain Iron, Carbon and other elements). Alloys are made so they have properties for specific uses.

Low-carbon steels are easily shaped.

High-carbon steels are hard.

Stainless steels (among some others) contain larger quantities of other metals. They resist corrosion.

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Chemistry Module 1

Metals and Their Uses - 3.3 Aluminium and Titanium


  • Low density
  • High in reacivity series (but is resistant to corrosion)
  • More reactive than carbon so oxide cannot be reduced by carbon. 
  • Extracted by electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide. This makes it expensive
  • Pure isn't very strong
  • Alloys are very strong and hard.


  • Very strong
  • Resistant to corrosion
  • Low density - compared to other strong metals
  • Titanium oxide can be reduced by Carbon, but the metal reacts with it making it brittle. 
  • Titanium is extracted by a several stage process that is expensive. It makes Titanium expensive also.
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Chemistry Module 1

Metals and Their Uses - 3.4 Extracting Copper


  • Copper can be extracted from coppper-rich ores via this method.
  • It involves heating the ore in a furnacce.
  • Produces impure copper.
  • Impure copper is purified via Electrolysis
  • This is very expensive


  • Uses plants to absorb copper from the ground.
  • The plants are burned and produce ash which the copper can be extracted from.


  • Bacteria to produce solutions containing Copper Compounds
  • Solutions of copper compounds can then be reacted to displaace the copper.
  • Soolutions of copper compounds can also extract copper via Electrolysis.
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Chemistry Module 1

Metals and Their Uses - 3.5 Useful Metals

Transition Metals - Elements from the central block of the Periodic Table. All are metals and                                     have similar properties. All are good conductors of heat and electricity. Many                               are strong yet malleable - these make them useful for buildings, vehicles,                                     containers, pipes and wires. 

Copper  is a very good conductor of heat and electricity and does not react with water. It is malleable and so it is often used in pipes and wanks and heating systems and electrical wiring.

  • Most metals used are not pure elements
  • Pure Iron, Copper, Gold and Aluminium are soft and easily bent. Made inot alloys so they are firmer.
  • Iron becomes Steel
  • Gold in jewellery is usually an alloy
  • Alumium in biuldings and aircraf is alloyeed
  • Copper alloys include bronze and brass
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Chemistry Module 1

Metals and Their Uses - 3.6 Metallic Issues

  • Mining leaves a lot of waste material and affects large areas of the environment. Recycling metals saves the energy needed to extract the metal. Recycling saves resources because less ore need to be mined. Less fossil fuels used to provide energy for extraction.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Metals in Construction

  • They are strong
  • They are malleable
  • They can be made into flexible wires
  • They are good electrical conductors
  • Obtaining them causes pollution
  • Obtaining them uses up limited sources
  • They are more expensive
  • Iron and steel can rust
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Chemistry Module 1

Crude Oil and Fuels - 4.1 Fuels from Crude Oil

Crude oil contains many different compounds that boil at different temperatures. This means Crude Oil needs to be separated to make useful fuels. 

We separate Crude oil via Fractional Distillation

(The different compounds that boil at different rates are called fractions)

Most of the molecules in Crude oil are Hydrocarbons. This means that their molecules contain only Hydrogen and Carbon. Most of these Hydrocarbons are Alkanes. with the general formul C(n)H(2n+2). Alkanes contain as many Hydrogen atoms as possible in each molecule so we call them saturated hydrocarbons. 

A molecular formula shows the number of each type of atom in each molecule e.g C(2)H(6) represents Ethane. We can also represent molecules by a displayed formula that shows how the atoms are bonded together. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Crude Oil and Fuels - 4.2 Fractional Distillation

Crude Oil is serparated via Fractional Distillation. This can be done because the boiling point of a hydrocarbon depends on its size. The large the molecule the higher the boiling point. 

  • The crude oil is vaporised and fed into a fractionating column
  • The vapours move up through the column getting cooler and cooler. 
  • The Hydrocarbons condense into liquid when they reach the level that is their boiling point. Different liquids collect on the different trays that are their levels and they are collected as individual fractions.
  • hydrocarbons with the smallest boiling points are collected at the top, and hydrocarbons with the highest boiling points are collected at the bottom. 
  • Low boiling range = low viscosity (runny liquids). Very flammable and burn with clean flames - no smoke. This makes them useful fuels 

Top to Bottom

Petroleum Gas - Gasolin/Petrol - Kerosene - Diesel/Gas Oil - Residue

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Chemistry Module 1

Crude Oil and Fuels - 4.3 Burning Fuels

Oxidised - When Hydrocarbons are burnt completely. They are oxidised to Carbon Dioxide and                     Water. 

Incomplete Combustion

This is when there is a limited supply of Oxygen. Instead of Carbon dioxide, Carbon Monoxide will be produced - this is toxic. Pure Carbon can also be produced and some of the hydrocarbons may not burn. This produces solid particles that contain soot (carbon) and unburnt Hydrocarbons called particulates. 

Most Fossil Fuels contain Culfur Compounds. When the fuel burns these sulfur compounds produce Sulfur Dioxide - cause of acid rain. 

At the high temperatures produced when fuels burn oxygen and nitrogen in the air may combine to form Nitorgen Oxides. Nitrogen oxides also cause acid rain. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Crude Oil and Fuels - 4.4 Cleaner Fuels

Burning large amounts of fuel releases substances into the atmosphere. Any fuel containing Carbon, once burnt will produce Carbon dioxide which is the cause of Global Warming. Incomplete Combustion produces Carbon Monoxide which is toxic. It can also produce tiny solid particulates that reflect sunlight and so cause Global Dimming. 

Burning fuels also produces Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides. THese gases dissolve in water droplets and then ACID RAIN FORMS!!! Make it rain rain rain, make it rain rain rain

We can remove harmful stuff from waste gases before they are released (into the wild) for example, Sulfur dioxide is removed from waste gases from power stations. 

Exhaust systems have Catalytic Converters to remove carbon monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides. Filters remove particulates. 

Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are supplied to users so that less sulfur dioxide is produced when the fuel is burned. 

Glory to all. Cos I feel like it. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Crude Oil and Fuels - 4.5 Alternative Fuels

Biofuels - Fuels that are made from renewable sources (plants and animal products). Biodiesel                    can be made from vegetable oils extracted from plants.


  • It makes little contribution to Carbon Dioxide levels
  • Carbon Neutral


  • The plants used for Biodiesel cover vast areas of land

Ethanol made from sugar cane or sugar beet is a biofuel. It is a liquid and so can be stored and distributed like other liquid fuels. It can be mixed with petrol.  However it can only be made in warm areas

We could hydrogen as a fuel. Advantage = only water is given off. Disadvantage = because it is a gas it takes up a large volume of storage and so difficult to store. Can be produced from water via Electrolysis but that requires lots of energy and is expensive.

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Chemistry Module 1

Products From Oil - 5.1 Cracking Hydrocarbons

Cracking - This is a process in which we crack large Hydrocarbon molecules into smaller                              hydrocarbon molecules. it can be done by heting a mixture of hydrocarbon vapours                      and steam to a very high temperature or by passing hydrocarbon vapours over a hot                      catalyst. 


These are saturated Hydrocarbons with the general formula C(n)H(2n+2). They are one kind of the two kinds of molecules produced during cracking. They have a single bond between two carbon atoms. They are very useful as fuels.


The others formed are unsaturated Hydrocarbons - Alkenes. These have the general formula C(n)H(2n). They are unsaturated because they contain fewer Hydrogen atoms with the same number of Carbons. They have a double bond between two Carbon atoms. We can identify Alkenes because they turn Bromine water from orange to colourless. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Products From Oil - 5.2 Making Polymers From Alkenes


These are made of very large molecules called Polymers. Polymers are made from many small molecules joined together (a strand of monomers). The reaction to make Polymers is called Polymerisation.

Ethene - Poly(ethene)

Propene - Poly(propene)

Lots of an alkene molecule type can join together to form Poly(alkene). In the reaction the double Carbon-Carbon bond becomes a single bond and all the molecules join together. Look at diagram on p24 and memorise.

Most plastics are made from Alkene polymers e.g bags, bottles, containers and toys. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Products From Oil - 5.3 New and Useful Polymers

  • Polymers can be designed to make new materials with specific purposes
  • New polymer dental filling materials have been designed to replace the previous mercury containing material. Light sensitive plasters have been made to cover wounds so the plaasters can be easily removed. 
  • Hydrogels are polymers that can trap water and have been used in dressing for wounds.
  • Shape-memory polymers change back to their original shape when heat or temperature changes. Material used for stitching wounds which changes shape with the body temperature. 
  • Fabric fibres can be coated with polymers to make them waterproof and breathable.
  • The plastic used for drinks bottles can be recycled to make clothing fabrics and pillow fillings and duvets. 

So basically ; dental filling, plasters, hydrogel, shape-memory, waterproof, recyclable plastic. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Products From Oil - 5.4 Plastic Waste

Biodegradable - This means that plastic waste can be broken down when left in the environment.                          Unless disposed of properly, plastic damages wildlife. By making plastic                                      biodegradable then micro-organisms can break them down. 

   Non-biodegradable plastics now have cornstarch mixed in with them so they can be brooken down by micro-organsims into small pieces that can be mixed in with soil. 

Most plastics can be recycled but due to the different types, sorting them is difficult. 

Biodegradable plastics are made from plant material. One example is food packaging which is made from Cornstarch. 

That's all folks ...

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Chemistry Module 1

Products From Oil - 5.5 Ethanol

Ethanol has the formula C₂H₆O but it is written as C₂H₅OH - the OH shows it is an alcohol.

Ethanol can be produced by the fermentation of sugar from plants using yeast. Yeast enzymes cause the sugar to convert to Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide. This is the method used to make alcoholic drinks.

Ethanol can also be made by the hydration of Ethene.

  • Reacted with Steam at a high temperature
  • In the presence of a catalyst
  • This ethene is obtained from crude oil via cracking


  • Made from plants so renewable. Can only produce dilute aqueous ethanol. Fractional Distillation must then separate it. 
  • Non-renewable from oil, and requires high temp. . Run continuously and produces pure ethanol.
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Chemistry Module 1

Plant Oils - 6.1 Extracting Vegetable Oil

Many seeds, nuts and fruits are rich in vegetable oil. We can extract the oil via 'Pressing'. This involves crushing the food, and then removing the oil of any impurities. Other oils are extracted by distilling the plant material mixed with water. This produces a mixture of oil and water which the oil can be separated from. 


  • When consumed can give lots of energy and nutrients
  • Release energy when they burn in air so a good fuel - biodiesel. 

Molecules are hydrocarbon chains. Those with Carbon-Carbon Double Bonds are unsaturated alkenes. If there are severeal unsaturated we call it polyunsaturated. This means the oil will turn Bromin water from orane to colourless.

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Chemistry Module 1

Plant Oils - 6.2 Cooking with Vegetable Oils

Food cooks faster in vegetable oil because it has a higher boiling point than water so can be cooked at higher temps. It changes colour and texture of food. If oil is absorbed energy content of the food chanes also. 


  • Unsaturated oils can be reacted with Hydrogen so double bonds become single bonds.
  • This is done at 60 Degrees C with a Nickel Catalyst. 
  • Hydrogenated oils have a higher melting point because they are more saturated.
  • It can be called hardening, because these oils are solid at room temperature.
  • They can be used as spreads (alternatives to butter) and make cakes and pastries that require solid fats. 
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Chemistry Module 1

Plant Oils - 6.3 Everyday Emulsions

Oil and Water usually separate and form two layers. If we shake or stir the liquid, tiny droplets form that can be slow to separate - an emulsion. 

Emulsion Properies

  • Opaque
  • Thicker than the oil and water
  • Improves texture, appearance and ability to coat/stick to solids.
  • Milk, cream, salad dressings, ice cream, water-based paints, cosmetic creams.

Emulsifiers - Substances that prevent an emulsion from separating. Emulsifier parts have a small                      Hydrophilic part and small Hydrophobic part. Hydrophilic part loves water,                                    Hydrophobic part hates water and is in oil. Hydrophobic tail goes into the oil parts                        and the hydrophilic head into the water surrounding it. This means that the 'heads'                        prevent oil droplets joining together and forming layers. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Plant Oils - 6.4 Food Issues

Advantages of Vegetable Oils and Emulsions

  • Vegetable Oils = high in energy and nutrients. 
  • Contain unsaturated fats which are considered better for your health than saturated fats. 
  • Emulsions stop oil and water separating into layers. This makes food creamier and more palatable.

Disadvantages of Vegetable Oils and Emulsions

  • Animal fats and hydrogenated Vegetable oils contain saturated fats and are in many foods. These fats have been linked to heart disease.
  • Emulsions taste better but it is less obvious that they are high in fat so you're tempted to eat more.
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Chemistry Module 1

Our Changing Planet - 7.1 Structure of the Earth

Core - Half the diameter of the Earth. Inner and Outer. Liquid Outer Part and Solid Inner Part. It                has a high proportion of magnetic metals iron and nickel.

Mantle - After the core (3000 km thick). Mantle is almost entirely solidbut parts can flow slowly. 

Crust - Very thin layer on the outside. Varies in thickness (5 - 70km thick). It is solid. The bit we              get most of our resources from so it is very limited. 

Atmosphere - Surrounds the Earth,. Most of the Air is 10 km  of the Surface and most of the                             atmosphere is within 100km of the surface. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Our Changing Planet - 7.2 The Restless Earth

   The Earth's Crust is cracked into pieces called Tectonic Plates. Due to Convection Currents caused by energy released from radioactive decay in the Mantle these move a couple of cm per year. 

    When the plates meet, huge forces build up and suddenly the rocks give way changing shape or moving suddenly and this causes Earthquakes, Volcanoes or mountains to form. 

Alfred Wegener put forward the idea of continental drift in 1915. At the time his theory was not accepted because he couldn't explain why the continents moved. In 1960 the scientists found evidencce for his theory (dinosaur fossils in different continents) and the theory was developed.

Most Volcanoes and Earthquakes occur at plate margins. Diagram p 33

Not very exciting this page was it. Sorry.

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Chemistry Module 1

Our Changing Planet - 7.3 The Earth's Atmosphere in the Past

The Earth wa formed approx 4.5 billion years ago.

In the 1st billion, the surface was covered in volcanoes that released Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapour and Nitrogen.

Earth cooled and water vapour condensed to form the seas. So th early atosphere was mainly Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour, with some Nitrogen and possibly Methane and Ammonia. 

In the next two billion years Bacteria, algae and Plants evolved. Algae and Plants used Carbon Dioxide and replaced it with oxygen


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Chemistry Module 1

Our Changing Planet - 7.4 Life on Earth

Miller-Urey Experiment suggests how life on Earth started the change in our planet.

In 1952 Miller and Urey conducted an experiment to see if the current theory for the start of life was correct. 

  • They used a mixture of Water, Methane and Ammonia
  • They added a high voltage spark to replicate lightning
  • After A week they found amino acids, the building blocks of life. 

THIS IS THE PRIMORDIAL SOUP THEORY!!!! Look at diagrm on p34. 

Since then many other theories have been proposed that would have produced amino acids and proteins but none have enough evidence. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Our Changing Planet - 7.5 Gases in the Atmosphere

Plants intook most of the Carbon in the Atmosphere. Animals ate the plants and then died and became fossilised. This meant most of the Carbon originally in the atmosphere became part of the Earth as sedimentary rock and fossil fuels. 

Carbon Dioxide dissolves in the ocens and some probably formed insoluble carbonate compounds that were deposited on the sea bed and became sedimentary. 

200 million the gases in the atmosphere were much as they are today. Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (0.9%), Carbon Dioxide (0.04%) and others. 

Separating Gases In Air

The gases in air have different boiling ppoints and so can be separated from liquid air by fractional distillation. This is done industrially to produce pure oxygen and liquid nitrogen. The air is cooled to below -200 degrees c and fed into a column. Nitrogen is separated from Oxygen and Argon aand further distillation is used to produce pure oxygen and argon. 

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Chemistry Module 1

Our Changing Planet - 7.6 Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere

The amount of Carbon in the atmosphere has remaine dthe same for around 200 million years. This is due to a balance being achieved in the intake and outake of Carbon. 

  • These processes involve carbon compounds in plants, animals, the oceans and rocks. The organic carbon cycle shows soem of these processes. 
  • Carbon Dioxide dissolves in water, particularly the oceans, and reactions of inorganic carbonate compounds are also important in maintaining a balance. 
  • In the recent past the amount of carbon dioxide that human activity has released has increased dramatically. This has been mainly caused by the large increase in the amount of fossil fuels that we burn. 

Look at diagram of Carbon Cycle on p36 

MODULE 1 IS COMPLETE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! FREEDOM!!!!!!!!!!!!

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Chemistry Module 1

Our Changing Planet - 7.6 Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere

The amount of Carbon in the atmosphere has remaine dthe same for around 200 million years. This is due to a balance being achieved in the intake and outake of Carbon. 

  • These processes involve carbon compounds in plants, animals, the oceans and rocks. The organic carbon cycle shows soem of these processes. 
  • Carbon Dioxide dissolves in water, particularly the oceans, and reactions of inorganic carbonate compounds are also important in maintaining a balance. 
  • In the recent past the amount of carbon dioxide that human activity has released has increased dramatically. This has been mainly caused by the large increase in the amount of fossil fuels that we burn. 

Look at diagram of Carbon Cycle on p36 

MODULE 1 IS COMPLETE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! FREEDOM!!!!!!!!!!!!

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