Chemistry Life Processes Revision cards

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Hybridisation in Carbohydrates

Causes the system to become more stable, in carbon the 2s 2p -->  4sp3

An electron is taken from the 2s shell and promoted to the px,py,pz (small energy gap), this provides 4 lone pairs of electrons for bonding.

The carbon atom is in an 'excited state'

The 4 bonds of equal energy provide a tetrahedron shape.

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Isomers of Alkanes

Constitutional (1) - same molecular formula, different carbon skeleton

Constitutional (2) - same carbon skeleton, different double bond position

Geometric - same carbon skeleton and double bond position, different order around the double bond  ( due to no free rotation around a d. bond)

Cis or Trans.

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Stereoisomers

Non superimposable mirror images

Have 'handedness'

Chiral

Enantiomers (non superimposable)

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Fischer Projections

Bonds to chiral carbons drawn as intersecting lines with the chiral carbon at the the center

Horizontal = bonds that come forward

Vertical = Bonds that point away

Most highly oxidised carbon at top.

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