Characteristics of a sustainable city

Overview of characteristics of a sustainable city for 'Changing urban environments' of the AQA Geography A syllabus.

HideShow resource information

Conserving the historical and natural environment

  • Example: Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City
  • Liverpool waterfront and areas associated with its development designated World Heritage site in 2004
  • Recognised importance of area as port and associated buildings of global significance during British Empire's heyday - 18/19th centuries
  • Many buildings have changed functions but are architecturally the same
  • Reducing / stopping development on edge of existing built-up area
  • Encouraging development on sites previously used in inner city / other areas
1 of 6

Use of brownfield sites and green belts

  • Green belts = area where restrictions placed on building to prevent outward expansion of towns and cities and to protect natural environment
  • Urban sprawl = uncontrolled outward expansion of built-up area of town/city
  • Provides recreational open space for residents
  • Alternative locations for development must be offered for growth to continue
  • Building on brownfield sites therefore simultaneously encouraged
  • Encourages sustainability
2 of 6

Reducing and safely disposing of waste

  • 2000: UK producing 330 million tonnes of waste / year (Albert Hall / hour)
  • 30 million tonnes of this = household waste
  • Target of reducing this by 40% by 2010 - as of 2004 only 18% achieved
  • 20% of household waste = garden waste
  • 18% of household waste = paper and cardboard
  • 17% of household waste = kitchen waste
  • Must consider cost of transporting and reprocessing products
  • Plastic bag usage must be reduced
  • Main options: landfill and incineration
  • 73% of UK household waste disposed of via landfill / 9% incineration (unpopular and lots of issues associated with it)
  • HOWEVER landfill shortages due to start becoming problem in 2015
3 of 6

Providing adequate open spaces

  • Presence of official green belts + areas where LAs choose to restrict buildings around cities = open space for recreation purposes
  • Many areas within cities have designated areas of open space:
    • Parks
    • Playing fields
    • Individual gardens
4 of 6

Involving local people

  • People with ownership of ideas / involvement / in control of their own destiny are more likely to respond positively and care for their building / environment
  • Essential to consult people at planning stages before decisions are made
  • Residents form associations to gain stronger collective voice
  • Asking what residents want + providing it = happy residents + residents who take better care of their homes
  • This can involve 'minor' things such as colour schemes for paint / bathroom suites etc.
  • Meetings in local halls where plans can be seen and discussed = opportunity to give views + feeling of inclusion not exclusion
5 of 6

Providing an efficient public transport system

  • Volume of cars as private transport = barrier to sustainability of a city
  • Congestion charging = unattractive to drivers ==> use alternative transport
  • PT must be efficient, reliable and comfortable
  • Underground and rail links in London - improvements are a key focus
  • Tube trains, lines and stations all being upgraded
  • Overground links to be extended to form complete circuit around London - railway equivalent to M25
  • Improvements to bus safety and making buses more frequent to reduce overcrowding will make them more attractive
  • By 2008, CCTV on all buses to increase feelings of safety / security
  • More bus stops gaining bus shelters
  • Quality / accessibility improvements - over 75% of buses have low floor access
  • Extended bus lanes = quicker journeys
  • Oyster cards = reduced rates + faster service = HAPPIER travelers!
6 of 6


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Sustainability resources »