Cellular Respiration

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Aerobic Respiration

Glucose + Oxygen = Water + Carbon dioxide + Energy

  • Respiration is the process of releasing energy from food for cells to use
  • Energy is used for movement, growth, warmth etc.
  • It takes place in the mitochondria
  • Muscle cells have the most mitochondria because they are most active
  • Fat cells have te least mitochondria because they aren't very active

Spirometer: Used to measure the amount of air that enters of leaves the lungs

Arteries: Carry blood AWAY from the heart

Veins: Carry blood TOWARDS the heart

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Effect of exercise on the body

During exercise:

  • Heart and breathing rate increases, arteries to muscles dilate
  • More oxygen in red blood cells, increased blood flow to muscles
  • More oxygen and glucose to muscles, carbon dioxide removed from muscles
  • More respiration
  • Muscles contract faster

Muscle action:

  • Muscles contract by sliding muscle fibres across each other  so the muscle becomes shorter
  • Glucose is stored in the muscles as glycogen, which is quickly converted back to glucose when needed
  • Glycogen is a carbohydrate
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Anaerobic Respiration

  • Respiration without using oxygen

Glucose = Lactic acid + energy

Oxygen Debt:

  • Lactic acid is a toxin which builds up in the muscle and causes pain and fatigue
  • It is broken down using oxygen, after exercise has stopped

Lactic acid + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water

  • The amount of oxygen needed is called the oxygen debt

It takes longer for an unfit person to pay off their oxygen debt becuase their heart/ lungs are weaker so take more pumps to pump the blood all around the body

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