CBG Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

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Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes


  • No nucleus
  • Arose 3000 million years ago


  • Nucleus
  • Arose 1500 million years ago
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Prokaryotic Cell Structure

  • Circular chromosme
  • Simple organelles
  • Rotating flagellum
  • Cell division by fission
  • Small- 1μm- diffusuion limited
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Prokaryotic molecular biology

  • Junk free genome
  • DNA lacks histones (proteins that package and order the DNA into histones)
  • One RNA polymerase using σ factor
  •  tRNAiformylmet start codon
  • 70S ribosomes
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Eukaryotic Cell Structure

  • Nucleus
  • Linear chromosomes
  • Endomembranes
  • Endosymbionts (mitochondria and plastids)
  • Cytoskeleton and 9+2 flagella
  • Cell division by mitosis
  • 100 μm 
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Eukaryotic Molecular Biology

  • Genome contains 'junk'
  • DNA bound by histones into nucleosomes
  • Three RNA polymerases using TBP
  • tRNAimet  start codon
  • 80s ribosomes
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Domains of life based on rDNA sequences

rDNA is the DNA that encodes rRNA. These genes tend to be highly conserved, they mutate slowly, as they are essential to the cell.

  • The prokaryotes are paraphyletic
  • Eukaryotes and archaea are sister groups
  • Bacteria is the outgroup
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  • Eukaryotes in a bacteria's clothing

They have:

Prokaryotic cell structure:

  • No nucleus
  • No endsosymbionts
  • No cytoskleton
  • Circular chromosomes

Eukaryotic molecular biology 

  •  Histone-bound DNA
  • tRNAmet  start codon
  • RNA polymerase uses Tata binding protein

Core information processing genes more similar to eukaryotes, metabolism genes are more closely related to bacteria 

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