Campaigns to Regain Normandy, 1205 - 1213

  • Created by: edtc
  • Created on: 20-03-19 16:54

Portsmouth Campaign, 1205

  • Forces mustered through April and May of 1205 - John unwilling to lose continental possessions permenantly. Preparation - said to be more excessive than Richard's prep for the Third Crusade. 
  • However John did not embark and it was cancelled
  • One reason for this- lack of support from English barons. Lacked will to to join him - politically risky to go w/o them - could potentially lose England. 
  • Refusal to support John - sign of future tensions. William Marshal- opposed out of self interest- swore oath to Philip in 1204.
  • Reinforcements that were sent only managed to relieve and reinforce garrison at La Rochelle. Led by John's half brother, earl of Salisbury
  • Chinon forced to surrender at Easter. Loches surrendered by end of June 1205.
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Poitou Campaign, 1206

  • Smaller expedition than Portsmouth. However, accompanied by a lot of his barons - indicates he learned to court their support.
  • Landed at La Rochelle June 1206
  • Small-scale raids conducted from the city which raised his visibility. Captured (allegedly) impregnable castle at Montauban. Aug - raiding into Berry.
  • Regained support of Aimery of Thouars - advanced into Anjou to borders of Maine - forced to turn back as Philip mustered an army. 
  • Two-year truce arranged. 
  • Despite limited resources, John made impressive gains. Poitou and much of Aquitaine, eg. Gascony, returned to his allegiance. 
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Battle of Damme, 1213

  • Successful in 1206, but 7 years passed before a conflict between Philip and John - problems w/ Church, Scotland, Ireland & Wales and English barons distracted him.
  • Spring 1213 - Philip II ordered son Louis to prepare invasion of England.
  • 30th May 1213 - John and Flemish allies assembled a fleet of 500 ships against the French at Damme. Led by earl of Salisbury. Caught French off-guard and managed to capture/ destroy most of their fleet. 
  • Significant - prevented French invasion of England & made John's invasion in 1214 possible. 
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