C7 module

Alkanes, Alcohols and Carboxylic acids and Esters

Alkanes = hydrocarbons = carbon atons joined by single bonds = burn in air

Alcohols = functional group -OH = general formula C(n)H(2n+1)OH = burn in air

Carboxylic acid = functional group -COOH

Esters = formed in reactions between carboxylic acids and alcohols

Fats = esters of glycerol and fatty acids

Saturated fats = single bonds = unreactive

Unsaturated fats = double bons = reactive

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Chemical Reactions

Exothermic reactions = give out heat = making bonds

Endothermic reactions = take in heat = breaking bonds

Activation energy = minimum energy needed to start a reaction

Reversible reactions = products reacts together to produce original reactants

Equilibrium = forward and backward reactions occur at same rate

= concentration of reactants and products doesn't change

Strong acids = ionise completely in water = no equilibrium

Weak acids = partialy ionise in water = dynamic equilibrium

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Qualitative analysis = identifies chemicals in a substances

Quantitative analysis = determines amount of chemical in a substance

Chromatography = seperates a substance as it moves between mobile and stationary phases.

Gas chromatography = able to separate complex mixtures

Titration = calculates the concentration of an acid by finding out how much alkali is needed to neutralise it

R(1) value = distance travelled by substances/distance travelled by solvent

Concentration = mass/volume

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Chemical industry and production of ethanol

Bulk chemicals = produced on large scale

Fine chemicals = produced on a small scale

Green chemistry = principles lead to more sustainable processes.

Catalysts = increase spread of reaction = cant be used again

Ethanol can be produced by..

- synthesis

- fermentation

- biotechnology

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Tasarla Deadman


it says that catalysts can't be used again, but they do. They aren't used up in a reaction, they simply provide an alternative route for the reaction to take place that requires a lower activation energy, meaning that the reaction takes place faster

other than that, great resource! :-)

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