- Nitrogen cycle.
- When plants are removed from the soil, the nitrogen in that part of the cycle is lost - it needs to be replaced.
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Organic and Intensive Farming Differences
- Organic farms use natural predators, natural pesticides and crop rotation to rid themselves of pests - intensive farming uses chemicals.
- Organic farms use animal waste, manure and crop rotation to help fertilise - intensive farming uses chemicals.
- Organic farming is more expensive than intensive farming.
- Organic produce is mroe expensive than intensive produce.
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Polymers and Digestion
- Carbohydrates, made of Oxygen Hydrogen and Carbon, are found in potatoes, museli and bread. The polymers are starch and cellulose, and the monomer is glucose.
- Proteins, made of Oxygen Hydrogen Carbon and Nitrogen, are found in meat eggs and fish. The monomers are amino acids.
- Excess proteins are transported to the liver to be made into Urea, and then the urea is extracted in the kidneys and put out with urine.
- Proteins are used mostly for tendons, but also hair, skin and muscles.
- Digestion: food goes through oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, poop.
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- Type 1 is developed in younger people - the body cannot make any insulin. Treated by insulin injections.
- Type 2, until recently, mostly developed in older people - the body either can't make enough insulin, or the body stops reacting to it properly. Treated by died, losing weight and exersice.
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- Colourings - make food look more attractive, replace colours lost in transport.
- Flavourings - make food smell and taste better.
- Sweetners - make food sweeter so you don't have to use as much sugar and makes the food have less calories.
- Antioxidants - stop foods containing fat going off when they react with oxygen - ie sausages.
- Preservatives - make the food so that microbes can't grow on it and keeps the food fresher for longer.
- Emulsifiers - join oil and water.
- Stablilisers - keep oil and water joined.
- Additives, other than flavourings, are governed by the EU. They are given and E Number if they pass a safety test.
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Safe and Healthy Food
- Food can never be risk-free.
- It could contain residues of chemicals from pesticides and herbicides.
- It could have been contaminated during transport or storage.
- It could be cooked dangerously - burned to form HA or PAHs which can cause liver cancer.
- You should try to eat healthy- try not to eat food that could contain chemicals, instead eat organic food. Wash, store and cook food properly.
- The labels contain information about calories, typse of fat, where the food was produced, and daily recommened amounts of the food.
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