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Making an ester

alcohol + acid → ester + water

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Evaporation in perfumes

A perfume must evaporate so that the perfume molecules can reach the nose easily.

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Perfumes are insoluble in water so that the perfume does not wash off easily.

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Esters are chemicals with pleasant smells. They are used in perfumes, and as solvents.

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Volatile liquids evaporate easily. They readily change from a liquid to a gas. This is because there are only weak attractive forces between particles in the substance. These forces are overcome easily, so particles with enough energy can escape from the liquid.

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Banning testing cosmetics on animals

The EU has banned all testing of cosmetics on animals because public opinion is strongly against it. 

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Why will water not dissolve nail varnish?

Because nail varnish is insoluble in water.

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