Buddhist texts as sources of wisdom and authority- their use and treatment in daily life


explain the background to the emergence of the Vin

  • The period after the death of the Buddha:
    • The Buddha's death is believed to be caused either:
      • passing over into Nibbana 
      • or an illness cause by contaminated pork.
  • The development of Vinaya Rules:
    • Sangha -> developed rules established by the Buddha, the rules are knonw as the Vinaya, which is the code of discipline.
    • Bhikkus -> Monks 
    • Bhikkunis -> Nun
    • immediate disputes fter the death of the Buddha
  • The three Buddhist council:
    • The monks joined together to sert the rulesfor pracitisng the middle way.
    • 1st: Principle of practicing for the sangha, and tp establish the teachings of the Buddha that had been transmitted orally. Major and Minor Rules.
    • 2nd: 100 years later due to internal conflict in the sangha because of the way the rules were being applied.
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Contents of the Vinaya

  • Contents of the Vinaya:
    • Donation of land and growth in popularity of Buddhism led to establishment of monasteries.
    • Vinaya became an established text reminating Buddhist of the importance if recitation for contemplation.
    • 227 patimokkha/ rules that deal with the 8 types of behaviour for monks and nuns.
    • section containing Pattimokkha is directed towards the individual, a way of guiding someone to the right path. 
  • Rules: 
    • Parajikas- entailing the expulsion for the sangha (defeat).
    • Sanghadisesa- entailing an initial and subsequent meeting of the sangha
    • Aniyata- indefinite rules
    • Nissggiya pacittiya- rules entailing forfeiture and confession.
    • Pacittiya: confession
    • Patidesaniya: pertaining to acknowledgement.
    • Sekhiya: training
    • Adikarana samatha: settling disputes.
  • Khanadhaka -> Overall organisation of the sangha covering aspects of living as a community under the Buddha's techaing.
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continue from the contents

  • Mahavagga:
    • Dealing with guidance an organisatiob abd the cullavagga covering procedures for matters associated with formal discipline.
  • Issues covered:
    • Admission to the sangha reciting of the Patimokka residence during the rainy season, ceremony codes, dress and diet codes, sickness, disagreements, probatiob of monks and nuns, settling legal matters, accounts of the first and second councils.
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Final section of the Vinaya (Pariva)

  • The use and treatments of the Patimokkha:
    • Patimokkha is recited everytime they want to ordane a monk, also whenever theres a full or new moon.
    • Why?
      • For the excellence and well-being of the community
      • the control of ill-heaved monks and the comfort of well-behaved monks.
      • The restraint of bad habits in this life and the prevention of the bad habits in the next.
      • The arousing of faith in the faithless and the increase of faith in the faithful.
      • The establishment of the Dhamma and support of Vinaya
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The Rules (CUSH)

  • Do not eat after midday 
  • Do not have a luxurious bed

These two both help the monks to detach from the desire of comfort in belongings and they dont eat food to stop the desire and craving for the food, not having a comfy bed stops someone loving their bed overly and reduces craving to go to it when other works could be done.

  • No amusement
  • No jewellery

These two show that the fewer belongings that you own the less things you continue to crave for, it also helps to prevent selfishness and the encouragement to help others.

Nuns rules are that they cannot criticise any monks

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Intro of Patimokkha

  • The Buddha and his followers walked from city to city teaching the Dhamma and how to overcome suffering.
  • This would happen in the rainy seasons in India, the Buddha needed somewhere to stay for 2-3 months during this time every year.
  • He set up asthetics in every city he would go to, they would become monks and would stay in that area to work with the people in the communtiy this creating a monastery, where donations would be accepted, like food and clothing.
  • These were called Sangha's.
  • A women could only join if 5 monks agreed.
  • After the death of the Buddha there were three Buddhist councils where they refind all the different holy texts.

1 of the sacred texts is known as the Vinaya.

Scholarly quote!

  • 'No buddhism without the Sangha, and no sangha without the disciplin.' Michael Carrithers.
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