The Basics 1
The First World War was the first 'Total War'. This means the country turned all its attention and resources towards the war efforts.
People in britain were affected in many ways because of the war:
- Recruitment: Huge poster campaigns were set up to encourage men to sign up tot he war. In 1916 Conscription was introduced
- Defense of The Realm Act (DORA): passed in August 1914, DORA allowed the government to take over coal mines, railways and shipping. Munitions factories were set up, as Lloyd George became Minister of munitions
- Reduced Workforce: Many millions had gone off to war leaving fewer workers
The Basics 2
- Rationing: In 1918 there was a fixed amount on sugar, jam, meat, butter and tea
- Propaganda: Newspapers and soldiers' letters were censored, lies about German atrocities were made up. Posters encouraged morale.
- Civilian casualties: there were 57 Zeppelin raids after 1915, and the German Navy shelled Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough.
Propaganda is used to promote something. Propaganda was designed to encourage men to sign up to the war, however after conscription it was used to keep up morale, it was designed to make the people believe on a certain viewpoint or to think in certain ways.
The government published posters at the start of the war to encourage recruitment. The most successful is the famous ' Britain wants YOU!" poster as it was a direct appeal to men.
After conscription was introduced in 1916, the government used propaganda to make people believe the war was going well.
What did women do to help the war efforts?
During the war Women also played large roles:
- Recruitment: Women were recruited as War nurses or as drivers, cooks and telephonists. They went into groups such as the Women's Royal Air force (WRAF) and the Women's Royal Navy Service (WRNS)
- DORA: Many women worked in the munitions factories
- Reduced Workforce: Women took on traditional men's jobs and became firemen, coal men and bus conductors.
- Rationing: Women helped produce produce in the Women's Land Army