British Depth Study

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British Depth Study
OCR GCSE Modern World History…read more

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The Liberal Reforms.
Why were the Liberal Reforms introduced?
Changing Attitudes
· In the 1800's, it was the belief that people were poor because they were lazy, or because they
wasted their money. This belief began to change in the early 1900's, when people began to think
that it wasn't always the person's fault that they were poor.
Social Reformers
· Charles Booth carried out research into poverty in London and published a 17-volume book from
· Seebohm Rowntree (Fruit Pastilles)- studied poverty in York and published A Study of Town Life
in 1901. Had friends in high places, letting him influence politics.
The Boer War
· Britain went to war in South Africa in 1899. It transpired that 50% of volunteer soldiers were unfit
for service. Reforms were needed otherwise the army would be weak.
· The Liberals and the Conservatives were the main parties in Britain. But there were the
upcoming Labour party who worked for the working classes. Labour promised reforms, so the
Liberals had to as well.…read more

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The Liberal Reforms.
Reforms for Children
Free School Meals, 1906
· This allowed (but didn't enforce) local authorities to provide school meals. This meant that
children would eat at least one decent meal per day. However, because it didn't force
authorities, only around half actually introduced this.
School Medical Inspections, 1907
· Every local education authority had to set up a school medical service. Provided regular
medical checks, but not treatment.
Children's Charter Act, 1908
· Introduced to combat parents killing their children to cash in on insurance. Parents were
prosecutable for neglect. Borstals were also set up to house young offenders away from
adult prisons.
School Clinics
· An advancement of the School Medical Inspections, this was extended to provide treatment
in schools as well.…read more

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The Liberal Reforms.
Reforms for the Old
Old Age Pensions Act, 1908
· David Lloyd George, in his first budget as Chancellor, introduced this. A person
over 70 with no other income received 5 shillings per week.
· Married couples would receive 7 shillings 5 pence (7s5d) a week.
· Anyone who had an income in excess of £31 per year was ineligible.
· Pensions could be refused to those who hadn't worked to the `best of their ability'
throughout their life.
· The pension was non-contributory i.e. the pension holder didn't have to contribute
anything to it.
· People would cry `God Save Lloyd George' when collecting their pensions.…read more

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The Liberal Reforms.
Reforms for the Unemployed
Labour Exchanges, 1909
· Volunteer-run Labour Exchanges had been run for some time.
· Unemployed people could sign a register where they'd find out about any other
available work.…read more

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The Liberal Reforms.
Reforms for Workers
The National Insurance Act, 1911
· Split into two parts
Part 1: Health Insurance
· All men and women in lower-paid manual jobs earning under £160 per year had to join.
· They had to pay 4d per week
· Employer added 3d and government added 2d ("9d for 4d")
· In return, the worker received up to 26 weeks off at 10 shillings a week. There was also free
medical care for the insured.
Part 2: Unemployment Act
· In trades such as building, shipbuilding and engineering, underemployment was common.
· To cover this, the Act required an extra (on top of part 1) 2½d.
· The employer would pay 2½d and the govt. would pay 1¾d.
· This gave 7 shillings for periods of unemployment up to 15 weeks.
· It deliberately wasn't much, because the govt. didn't want workers to sit back on their
benefits.…read more

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Amazing infomation!! exam tommorow!!! using ur notes to revise

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