Bonding, Structure and Properties of Matter

  • Created by: JazzS14
  • Created on: 09-02-21 16:52


Ions are Made When Electrons are Transferred

Ions are charged particles - they can be single atoms (e.g. Cl-) or groups of atoms (e.g. NO3-)

When atoms lose or gain electrons to form ios, all they're trying to do is get a full outer shell like a noble gas (also called a 'stable electronic structure). Atoms with full outers shells are very stable

When metals form ions, they lose electrons from their outer shell to form postive ions

When non-metals form ions, they gain electrons into their outer shell to form negative ions

The number of electrons lost or gained is the same as the charge on the ion. E.g. if 2 electrons are lost the charge is 2+. If 3 electrons are gained the charge is 3-

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Ionic Bonding

Ionic Bonding - Transfer of Electrons

When a metal and a non-metal react together, the metal atom loses electrons to to form a positively charged ion and the non-metal gains these electrons to form a negatively charged ion

These oppositely charged ions are strongly attracted to one another by electrostatic forces. This attraction is called an ionic bond

The diagram below shows the formation of an ionic bond between sodium and chlorine to form the ionic compound sodium chloride

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Ions: Group 1,2,6 and 7

Groups 1 & 2 and 6 & 7 are the Most Likely to Form Ions

The elements that most readily form ions are those in Group 1,2,6 and 7

Group 1 and 2 elements are metals and they lose elections to form positive ions (cations)

Group 6 and 7 elements are non-metals. They gain electrons to form negative ions (anions)

Elements in the same group all have the same number of outer electrons. So they have to lose or gain the same number to get a full outer shell. And this means that they form ions with the same charges

A sodium atom (Na) is in Group 1, so it will lose 1 electron. Na  Na+ + e-. It will have the same electronic structure as neon

A magnesium atom (Mg) is in Group 2, so it will lose 2 electrons. Mg → Mg2+ + 2e-. It will have the same electronic structure as neon

A chlorine atom (Cl) is in Group 7, so it will gain 1 electron. Cl + eCl-. It will have the same electronic structure as argon

An oxygen atom (O) is in Group 6 so it will gain 2 electrons. O + 2e-  O2-. It will have the same electronic structure as neon

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