Russia's Entry into WWI

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  • Russia's entry into WWI
    • Long Term Reasons
      • The growth of a united Germany since 1871
        • Unification of Germany, 1871, meant Europe was dominated by a powerful nation
        • This alarmed Russia
      • Formation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1867
        • Russia scared it would build on its new strengths
      • Decline of the Ottoman Empire
        • As Turkey weakened it would be increasily challenged by other nations
        • Threatened Russias interest in the Balkans
        • Turkey was a slav nation; Russia felt they needed to protect them (tradition)
        • Dardanelle Straits- 75% russias grain exports; needed control of it
      • Relations with Austria-Hungary
        • Annexed the Balkan region of Bosnia- allowed Russia to use however
        • Deteriorating relations between them, Russia demanded compensation
        • Germany warned not to interfere, because of Serb Nationalism aroused by the annexation
        • Balkan wars- persuade other nations to form a coalition against AH
        • Balkan nationalism led to a series of conflicts
      • Relations with Germany France, and Britain
        • Concerned that control over Poland would be weakened
        • Fears of becoming isolated after Germanys unifcatioin
          • Franco Russian Convention 1892
            • Traditional dislike, however main investor in the 'great spurt' 1890's
            • Military support help if Germany went to war
          • To avoid isolation and common fear of German aggression alliance treaty signed.
          • The Triple Entente, 1907
            • Britain felt threatened, included in the alliance after Germany's naval expansion
    • Short Term Reasons
      • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand 1914
        • Heir to the AH throne
        • Assassinated by Serbian nationalists
        • AH declared war on Serbia, Russia is defender of the Slav nation
        • Russia didn't want to go to war with Germany- Willy Nicky Exchanges- tried to prevent but out of their control
      • Russia's mobilisation plans
        • PARTIAL mobilisation
          • Based on plans for a limited campaign in the Balkans agains AH
            • Both forms relied on precise railway timetabling transporting vast amounts of men & materials
          • If Ruussia only mobilised partially in AH it would leave Russia defenceless against Germany
        • FULL mobilisation
          • Based on plans for a full scale war against AH and Germany
            • Both forms relied on precise railway timetabling transporting vast amounts of men & materials
          • If Russia fully mobilisedGermany would have to do the same
      • Germany's mobilisation plans
        • If Russia mobilisedGermany would have to go to war
        • German 'Schleiffen Plan' based on speed and essence.
        • Russia had to be first; they fully mobilised and Germany demanded they cease their mobilisation
        • Germany declared War on Russia, 1 August 1914, as did AH four days later
  • Based on plans for a limited campaign in the Balkans agains AH

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