Beer/ Wine Making Steps
- Sugar comes from barley, in beer and grapes in wine.
- Sugar is extracted when Malted.
- Water and Barley are added.
- Hops are added for beer, in wine hops aren't needed.
- It's sterilised by heating to kill micro-organisms.
- Yeast added and mixture is put into tanks to ferment.
- Beer is clarified and wine is cleared.
- Then it's pasterised so unwanted micro-organisms are killed.
- Then it's bottled or barreled.
- Bottled beers need to be pasterised to help preserve it and keep out micro-organisms.
- Different strains of yeast are used to give different flavours and to withstand higher alcoholic contents.
- Vodka= Potato
- Whiskey= Malted Barley
- Rum= Sugar Cane
Distilled water is gotten rid off so alcohol content is bigger.
Must be brewed in licensed premises.
Yeast is a type of fungus which reproduces asexually. Waste water can be used to clean water!
glucose + oxygen --> Carbon dioxide + Water (+energy)
Disease and Scientists
Pasteur 1860's = Micro-organisms in air cause food to go bad meaning we started to use fridges and cover food.
Lister 1865 = Anti-septic, sprayed acid on food now antiseptics are always used.
Flemming 1928 = Penicillin, fungi produced mould, where the mould grew bacteria didn't, we now use antibiotics to cure infections.
Biogas- 70% methane, 30% Carbondioxide.
Made in digester- Aerobic fermentation of waste materials.
Components of Soil;
- Living plants and animals 5%
- Rock Fragments 40%
- Air (Oxygen) 22.5%
- Water (minerals) 22.5%
- Decayed plants and animals 10%
Earthworms- Are good for aerating and drainage soil which makes it more fertile which is what Darwin discovered.
- Chalk and lime neutralise's acid in soil.
- Natural/ Chemical acids neutralise's alkali in soil.
Controlling and Regulating Water
Kidneys adapt to salt/ fresh water to keep salt levels at a constant, salmon live in sea and move to fresh water to breed- hormones adapt to the salt levels.
Single cell organisms have a membrane cell. They use a contractile vacuole to remove water which collects by osmosis in the cell e.g. in amoebas.
Life in Water
Advantages- No shortage of water, hard to dehydrate, less variation of temperature, support for animals with no skeletal system e.g. jelly fish, buoyancy means animals can be larger, waster disposal is easier.
Disadvantages- More resistance to movement so you have to use more energy to move, have to be able to regulate water in your body because of osmosis.
- Phytoplankton- microscopic plants that live in water
- Zoo-plankton- microscopic animals that live in water- eat phytoplankton.
They rely on currents for movement
They increase in algal blooms in right conditions: more light and higher temperature also when lakes and polluted by fertilizers or sewage due to the increase in Phosphates and Nitrates which cause Eutrophication.
Eutrophication and Water Pollution
- Fertilsers-->Algal bloom-->Algae dies--> Bacteria feeding on dead algae using up Oxygen in water-->Organisms that need Oxygen die e.g. fish
- Pesticides such as DDT and chemicals wash into water, they are then taken in by organisms at bottom of chain, when they are eaten it's passed on along the food chain and builds up it animals higher up the food chain which could kill them.
- Oil spills from tankers harm water life.
- Used in biological washing powders, they work best in cool washes and at a pH of 7 to break down greasy, oily and fatty stains.
- Used to diagnose things such as diabetics by detecting sugars in urine- reagent strips cause enzyme reactions to see blood sugar levels.
- Used in food industry for: Low calorie food e.g. sucrose --> glucose + fructose which are sweeter than sucrose and less calories, cheese production rennet is used to clot milk.