Biology AS (1)

Biology AS (1)

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  • Created by: alex
  • Created on: 17-04-11 14:27


Plasma Membrane 
- Found on the surface of animal cells and inside the cell wall of plant cells and prokaryotic cells.
-Made up of proteins and lipids.
-Regulates the movement of substances in and out the cell.
-Covered in receptor molecules wgich allow it to respind to hormones etc.

Cell Wall
-Rigid structure that surrounds plant cells.

-Made up of carbohydrate cellulose.
-Supports plant cells. 

-surrounded in a double membrane, which contains many pores for movement.
-contains chromatin, made from proteins and D.N.A that control the cell's activities.
-contains a nucleolus to make ribosomes 

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-round organelle surrounded by a membrane

-contains digestive enzymes to digest invading cells or break down worn out components of the cell.

-Either floats free or is attatched to the R.E.R

-the site where proteins are made.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
-membrane system enclosing a fluid-filled space

-surface covered in Ribosomes
-folds and processes proteins that have been made at the Ribosomes. 

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
-no Ribosomes
-Synthesises and processes lipids.  


- small fluid filled sac in the cytoplasm

-made at the Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum or the cell surface.
-transports substances in and out of the cell and between organelles.

Golgi Apparatus

-group of fluid filled flattened sacs
-processes and packages new lipids and proteins
-makes lisosomes

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-double membrane

-inner membrane folded to form Crustae.
-inside is the matrix conatining enzymes involved in respiration
-the site of aerobic resperation, where A.T.P is produced. 

-double membrane 

inner membranes called Thylakiod membranes stacked to form Grana and linked by Lamallae
-the site of photosynthesis, some occurs in the Grana, other in the stroma (found in chloroplasts).

-hollow cylinders

-contain a ring of microtubules
-involved in the seperation of chromosones during cell division

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-small hair like structures found on the surface of some animal cells

-conatin a ring of nine pairs of microtubules and an inner pair
-microtubules allow movement
-movement moves substances along the cell surface  

-longer than cilia

-9 pairs of microtubules and one pair in the centre
-microtubules contract for movement
-propel cells forward 

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Sukhmanjit Singh

Nice one its helpfull !

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