BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS

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  • Created on: 29-05-11 14:28

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS A BODILY RESPONSE

WHAT IS STRESS?

WHAT IS A STRESSOR?

WHAT IS THE TRANSACTIONAL MODEL?

OUTLINE THE TRANSACTIOAL MODEL?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS A BODILY RESPONSE

A state of psychological and physical tension produced according to the tranactional model, when there is a mismatch between the percieved demands of a situation (the stressor), and the individuals percieved abillity to cope

a stimulus or situation imposing demands on an individual

portrays stress as an imbalence between percieved demands of the individual and coping abilities

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS A BODILY RESPONSE

OUTLINE THE HYPOTHALAMIC PITUITARY-ADRENAL SYSTEM (HPA)

OUTLINE THE SYMPATHETIC - ADRENOMEDULLARY PATHWAY (SAM)

WHAT IS SELYE'S GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS)?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS A BODILY RESPONSE

Main features are that the hypothalamus communicates with the pituitary gland, causing it to release ACTH.  This hormone is then detected in the bloodstream by the adrenal cortex, which then releases corticosteroids.  The corticosteroids have a range of effects, such as causing the liver to release glucose.

The fight or flight response activates the Sympatetic branch of the Autonomic nervous sytem. The SAM pathway runs to the adrenal medulla and stimulates it, releasing the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline into the bloodstream. The hormone adrenaline released form the adrenal medulla increases heart rate and blood pressure.

Model of bodies response to stress - 3 stages, alarm, resistance and exhaustion

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

WHAT DID COHEN ET AL INVESTIGATE?

WHAT DID HE FIND?

WHAT DID HE CONCLUDE?

WHAT WAS KIECOLT-GLASER INTERESTED IN?

WHAT WAS HER STUDY?

WHAT DID SHE FIND?

WHAT DID SHE CONCLUDE?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

General life stress on vunrability to the common cold

The chance of developing a cold significantly correlated with stress index scores

life stress reduce effectiviness of the immune system

Naturalistic life stressors and their impact on measures of immune function

Meausres of NK cell activity were recorded from blood samples taking one month before exams (low stress) and during the exam period (hign stress). Participants completed questionares on experiece of negative life events and social isolation

NK cell activity reduced in high stress samples - greatest reductions in student reporting higher levels of isolation

examination stress reduces immune function

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS IN EVERYDAY LIFE

WHAT IS THE SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE (SRRS)?

WHAT WAS RAHE ET AL'S AIM?

WHAT WAS THEIR PROCEDURE?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

WHAT DID THEY CONCLUDE?

THE STUDY HASN'T TAKEN INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES INTO ACCOUNT, WHY IS THIS A PROBLEM?

THE SRRS INCLUDED BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EVENTS, WHY IS THIS AN ISSUE?

WHY DOES IT MATTER THAT THIS WAS A CORRELATIONAL STUDY?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Rates the stress value of certain life events

Link between scores on SRRS scale and illness

used male American soldiers given SRRS to asses LCU over previous 6 months - over following 6 month tour records kept on health of soldiers -

positive correlation

experiencing life events increase chance of illness

study may not represent society - stress only exists whe we percieve it to be there - therfore depending on individuals perception they may find certain events more stressful than others

Peoples perception of whether an event is positive/negative may differ

doesn't state the cause, other factors may be involved e.g life style

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS IN EVERYDAY LIFE

WHAT ARE HASSELS?

WHAT DID LAZARUS BELIEVE ABOUT HASSELS COMPARED WITH LIFE EVENTS?

OUTLINE THE HASSEL SCALE?

WHAT WAS THE STUDY DONE BY KANNER ET AL?

WHAT DID HE FIND?

WHAT DID HE COCLUDE?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Stresses of every day life as opposed to major life events e.g weight concerns

Hassels were more significant for health than major life events

hassle scale focuses on everyday stressors rather than life events

complete a questionnaire each month which asked them to chose which hassles they had experienced from 117, then rate each hassle to show how stressful it had been for them. This was repeated for 9 months.

Certain hassles occurred more frequently than others. Those with high score were more likely to have health problems. Events on the uplifts scale were negatively related to poor health – these events may reduce stress.

Daily hassles are linked to stress and health, with a stronger correlation than found with the SRRS.

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - WORKPLACE STRESS

HOW CAN THE ENVIROMENT OF THE WORKPLACE CAUSE STRESS?

HOW DOES A PERSON DEGREE OF COTROL AT WORK CAUSE STRESS?

HOW CAN WORKLOAD CAUSE STRESS?

WHAT WAS THE STUDY BY FRANKENHAEUSER?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

WHAT DID THEY CONCLUDE?

 

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - WORKPLACE STRESS

Heating / lighting / physical arragement can cause stress - research has shown intense noise and increases in temperature can lead to fustration

Degree of control (decision latitude) has been shown to directly affect the levels of stress

having to much work aswell as to little can cause stress

Studied 2 groups of workers at a sawmill - 1. competitive task of feeding logs into a machine all day, workers were socially isolated, little control over their work machines dictated how quickly they should feed the logs in. Group 2 had more control, social contact. Stress levels measured by taking urine samples, blood pressure.

less control = higher levels of stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline)

A lack of control and social contact at work can lead to stress.

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - WORKPLACE STRESS

EXPLAIN KARESEK'S MODEL OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB DEMANDS AND DECISON LATITUDE?

WHAT WAS THE STUDY BY MARMOT ET AL?

WHAT DID HE FIND?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - WORKPLACE STRESS

Test workplace creates stress and illness in two ways (1) High demand (2) Low control. participants all-civil service employees working in the London area. took part in a questionnaire and checked for signs of cardiovascular disease reassessed 5 years on

higher grades of the civil service = least amount of cardio problems. lower grades expressed a weaker sense of job control and lowest support. Cardiovascular disease could be explained in terms of factors such as smokers.

low control is linked with higher stress levels and cardiovascular disease, higher job demand is not linked with stress and illness

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - PERSONALITY FACTORS

WHAT ARE THE KEY FEATURES OF TYPE A BEHAVIOUR PATTERN?

WHAT WAS THE STUDY BE FRIEDMAN AND ROSENMAN?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

WHAT DID THEY CONCLUDE?

WHAT OTHER RESEARCH HAS BEEN SHOWN TO DISAGREE?

WHAT ARE THE THRESS BASIC ELEMENTS OF HARDINESS?

HOW DOES LOW HARDINESS AFFECT STRESS?

HOW DOES HIGH HARDINESS AFFECT STRESS?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - PERSONALITY FACTORS

Time pressured, competitive and hostile

Inverstigate link between TAB and CHD - structured interview categorised men 39-59 as type A,B,X. Logitudinal study followed up over 8 1/2 years to asses health

257 men had developed CHD (70% were Type A)

TAB increases vunrability to heart disease

Shekelle et al found no difference in CHD between Type A and B - hostility was a key element in linking CHD and Type A together

Control, commitment, challenge

LOW: badly affected by stress HIGH: good at dealing with stress, low rish of stress related illness

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - COPING WITH STRESS

WHAT IS PROBLEM FOCUSED COPING?

WHAT IS EMOTION FOCUSES COPING?

HOW IS STYLE OF COPING INFLUENCED BY THE STRESSOR?

HOW IS STYLE OF COPING INFLUENCED BY CONTROLLABILITY?

HOW IS STYLE OF COPING INFLUENCED BY GENDER?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - COPING WITH STRESS

Targets the cause of stress in a practical way that directly reduces the impact of the stressor e.g. planning revision schedule

targets the emotional impact of the stressor e.g. denial, seeking support, smoking

PFC used more often with work problems, EFC used more when there were probelms with personal relatioships

PFC used when people see a situation as controllable e.g. exams, EFC used when something is out of their control e.g. life threatening illness

Some showed women use more EFC and men used more PFC, other research has found no difference

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PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGMENT

WHAT IS THE STRESS INOCULATION TRAINING (SIT)?

THE TRAINING CONSITS OF THREE STAGES, WHAT HAPPENS IN THE CONCEPTUALISATION STAGE?

WHAT HAPPENS IN THE SKILLS TRAINING AND REHEARSAL STAGE?

WHAT HAPPENS IN THE 3 STAGE, APPLICATION IN THE REAL WORLD?

WHY IS SIT EFFECTIVE?

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS WITH SIT?

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PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGMENT

Cognitive behavioural approach to managing the negative effects of stress

identify fears with the help of a therapist

train to develop skills like positive thinking and relaxation in order to improve self-confidence

practise the newly acquired skill in real-life situation with support and back-up from the therapist

The approach is tailered to idividual needs of client, has been shown to be effective for a variety of different situations

takes time, commitment and money - not suitable / available to everyone

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PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGMENT

WHAT IS HARDINESS TRAINING?

WHAT ARE THE THREE STAGES OF HARDINESS TRAINING?

WHY IS HARDINESS TRAINING EFFECTIVE?

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS WITH HARDINESS TRAINING?

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PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGMENT

A programme to increase level of hardiness to improve ability to deal with stress

1. Focusing    2. Reconstructing stressful situations   3. Self improvement

increased sense of self efficiancy, better able to deal with future stressful situations - studies have shown the effectivness of the training

involves time, commitment and money - not suitable for everyone

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PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGMENT

WHAT ARE THE BEST KNOWN EXAMPLES OF BENZODIAZEPHIES?

HOW DO BENZODIAZEPHIES ACT?

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS WITH BENZODIAZEPHIES?

WHAT'S GOOD ABOUT BENZODIAZEPHIES?

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PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGMENT

Librium, Valium - can be effective anti-anxiety drugs

reducing serotonin activity and brain arousal by increasing action of neurotransmitter GABA

Have a range of side effects / can lead to state of physical dependence / don't target source of stress or help individual develop more effective coping stratergies

 Work in 2 day = quick relief

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PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGMENT

WHAT ARE BETA BLOCKERS?

HOW DO THEY ACT?

WHAT ARE THE POSITIVES OF BETA BLOCKERS?

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS WITH BETA BLOCKERS?

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PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGMENT

Drugs used in the treatmet of bodily arousal associated with stress, act directly on cardovascular system of the body

works on the sympathetic nervous system, directly reduce heart rate and blood pressure

act rapidly, no severe side effects

don't target source of stress only physical symptons, inefficent for long term stress managment more effectively trained by psychological methods

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ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR STRESS MANAGMENT

HOW DOES BIOFEEDBACK WORK?

WHAT ARE THE GOOD POINTS OF BIOFEEDBACK?

WHAT ARE THE NEGATIVE POINTS OF BIOFEEDBACK?

HOW EFFECTIVE IS PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION AND MEDIATION?

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ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR STRESS MANAGMENT

patients are given information about their physiological activity, such as heart rate, blood pressure and are then helped to devise ways of bringing these under control

 Harmless and has no side effects - biofeedback has been shown to be successful in treating some stress-related conditions (eg migraine, high bloodpressure)

requires motivation and commitment - results are no better than those of conventional relaxation training

Reduces arousal associated with stress and increaes sense of control - doesn't target source of stress - uselful when combined with more foucused mthods e.g. biofeedback

 

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ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR STRESS MANAGMENT

HOW EFFECTIVE IS PYSICAL EXERCISE?

THE FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT CAN BE DIVIDED IN 4 CATEGORIES...

WHAT IS MEANT BY EMOTIONAL SUPPORT?

WHAT IS MEANT BY PRACTICAL / INSTRUMENTAL SUPPORT?

WHAT IS MEANT BY INFORMATIONAL SUPPORT?

WHAT IS MEANT BY GENERAL NETWORK SUPPORT?

HOW HAS SOCIAL SUPPORT BEEN SHOWN TO BE EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR STRESS MANAGMENT?

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ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR STRESS MANAGMENT

Lowers hear rate and blood pressure and raises mood, reduces reported levels of stress and depression - some risk of injury

Social network shows cocern for your situation and provided reassurance

Support group provides practical advice or help

Support group may be source of advice on how to deal with stressor

being part of a network od people provides sense of belonging and social identity

Research has shown that social support is a significant factor in protecting against the negactive effects of stress, it can provide practical and emotional help, reducing demands and improving coping resources

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

WHAT WAS THE STUDY DONE BY KIECOLT - GLASER (1995)?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

WHAT DID THEY CONCLUDE?

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY - STRESS AND IMMUNE SYSTEM

In a study with an independent measures design, small wound was created in the arms of 13 women who cared for relatives with Alzheimer's disease. A control group of 13 also took part

Wound healing took an average of 9 days longer for the carers than those in the control group

Long term stress impairs the effectiveness of the immune system to heal wounds

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