What does an Electricardiograph record?
What does a electrocardiaraph check? what is it? what does it mean when the heart depolairses? when does it do this? what does it do when it relaxes? what do this mean? what does the relectrocarigraph do? how?
A machine that records the electricala activity of the heart and check someones heart function, it loses electrical charge when it contracts, repolarises meaning it regains charge, records these changes in electrical charge using electrodes placed on the chest,
What do blood vessels transport? where? What are the three types of blood vessels?
Where do arteries carry substances from to where? what are their wall size? describe? what do they have? why do they need it? whats the endothelium? whats it like in arteries? what does this allow? what type of blood do they carry? excpet which artery? what does that carry?
What do arteries branch into? are they the largest or the smallest? what substances do they exchange? what do they exchange with? what are they adapted for? give an example? what do they connect to?
Where do veins take blood? under what pressure? are they wider or thinner than arteries? do they have elastic or muscle tissue? do they have valves? how is blood flow helped? what type of blood do they carry? why? excpet for what vein? which carries what?
Substances around the body, arteries, capillaries veins
blood from the heart to the rest of the body, walls are thin, muscular and have elastic tissue, to cope with the pressure produced by the heartbeat, is the inner lining, its folded allows the artey to expand and to cope with the high pressure, caarry oxygfenated blood expect the pulmonary artieries which take deoxuygenaed blood to the lungs
Capillaries, smallest, glucose and oxygen between cells and capillaires, efficient diffusion, their walls are only once cell thick, veins
take blood back to the heart, low pressure, wider, little elastic or muscle tissue, contain valves, contraction of the body muscles surrrounding them, carry deoxygenated blood as its been used ub by the body cells, except pulmonary veins which carry oxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs
What is tissue fluid? whats it made from? give example? what do cells take in from where? what do they release? Whats a capillary bed? what moves out of the capillary bed innto where? via what?
Where is the pressure greater in the capillary bed than the tissue fluid? whats that near? What does this difference in pressire cause? what does this form? what happens as fkluid leaves? so where is pressure low? whats that near? what does the fluid loss cause? what does some water do?via what?
What happens to excess tissue fluid?
Is the fluid that surrounds the cells in tissues, substances that leave the blood, oxygen water nutrients, oxygen and nutrients from tissue fluid, metaboilc waste, a network of capillaires in an area of tissue, subsatnces move out into tissue fluid, pressure filtration
At the start of the capillary bed near the arteries, forces fluid out of the capillaries and into spaces around the cells forming tissue fluid, pressure reduces in the capillaries so the pressure is lower at the end of the capillary bed near the veins, the water potential at the end of capillaries near the veins is lower than the water potential in the tissue fluid, some water reenters the capillaries from the tissue fluid at the vein end by osmosis
Does all the tissue fluid re enter the capillaires? some excess tissue fluid is ___ ___, what happens to it eventually? through what system? whats it like? whats it made up of?
What are the smalles lymph vesels? where does excess tissue fluid pass?whats it called when its inside? what do vavlves in the lynmph vessels stop? where does lymph gradually move? wheres that? what happens to it when their?near what?
Whats tissue fluid formed from? what is lymph formed from?
Which one has red blood cells? why dont they have it? which one has white blood cells? where are white blood cells mostly? when are they in tissue fluid? which ones have platelets? when are they in tissue fluid? which ones have proteins? why mostly in the blood? which ones have water? which ones have higher water potential? which ones have dissolved solutes? can they move freely? give e.g?
No, left over, returned to the blood, lymphatic system, drainage system, lymph vessels
lymph capillaries, into the lymph vessels, lymph, stop lymph going backwards, the main lymph vessel in the thorax, in the blood near the heart
Blood, Tissue fluid,
Blood, red blood cells are to big to get through the capillary walls into tissue fluid, blood tissue fluid(very few) lymph, lymph system, when theirs infection, blood, if capillaries are damaged, blood tissue fluid(very few) lymph (antibodies), to big to get through capillary wall, blood tissue fluid lymph, tissue fluid and lymph, blood, tissue fluid and lymph, move freely, salt
Whats oxygen carried round the body as? what do red blood cells contain? whats the sign? is haemoglobin smalle or large? what is it? what structure does it have? what does this mean?how many does it have? what does each chain have? what does it contain? what does this give? what does Haemoglbin have high of? what does affinity mean? how many molecules of oxygen can it carry? what happens in the lungs? what does this form? what type of reaction is this? how? whats the formula?
What does haemoglobin saturation depend on? whats the sign for the partial pressure of oxygen? whats it a measure of? what does it mean for partial pressure if the concentration of dissolved oxygen in cells is greater? whats the sign for partial pressure of carbon dixoide? whats that a measure of? what does the variation of haemoglboins affinty for oxygen depend on? why? where does oxygen enter blood capillaries? what pO2 do alveoli have? what happens here then? what happens to oxygen when cells respire? lowering what? where do red blood cells deliever oxyheamoglobin? where does the haemoglobin go then?
Oxyhaemoglobin, haemoglobin (hb), large protein. quaternary structure, it has more than one polypeptide chain, four, haem group which contains iron and gives it the red colour, high affinity for oxygen, is the tendency to combine, four, oxygen joins to the iron in haemoglbing forming oxyhaemoglobin, reversible reaction, when oxygen leaves oxyheamglobin (dissociates) near the body cells it turns back to haemoglobin
Partial pressure of oxygen, pO2, oxygen concentration, the higher partial pressure, pCO2, is a measure of co2 in cells, partial pressyre of oxygen, as oxygen loads onto haemoglobin to form oxyhaemglobin where theres high pO2 and oxyhaemoglobin unloads its oxygen where theres lower pO2, alveoli in the lungs, high pO2, so oxygen loads onto haemoglboin forming oxyhaeoglobin, they sue up oxygen, lowers pO2, to respiring tissues, returns to lungs to pick up more o2,
What does a dissociation curve show? where is po2 high? what is the affinity here? meaning? whats the satuiration here? where is po2 low? whats the affinity hre? what does it do instead of what? whats the saturation here? what does 100% saturation mean? what is 0% saturation mean?
Why is the graph S-shaped? what happens as Hb starts to become saturated? whats the effect on the curve? what does the steep bit in the middle represent? and the shallow bits at each end? when its steep wgat oes a small change in p)2 cause?
What has higehr affinity for oxygen adult or fetal haemoglobin? why? where does the fetus get oxygen? whats happened by the time the mothers blood reeaches the placenta? why? what does the fetus need to survive? what would happen if they had the same affinity?
how staurated the haemoglboin is with oxygena t any give partial pressure, lungs, high affinity for oxygen, it will readily combine, high saturation of oxygen, respiring tissue, low affinity for oxygen, so it releases oxygen rather than combines with it, thats why it has low saturation, every heamoglboin molecule is carrying the max 4 moelcules of O2, means none of the haebglobin are carrying o2 molecules
when haemoglboin combines with the first 02 molecule its shape alters in a way that makes it easier for other molecules to combine, it gets ahrder for more oxygen moelcules to join, the
curve has a steep bit in the mioddle.where its really easy for oxygen molecules to join, are where it harder, a big change in the amount of oxygen carried by Hb
Fetal, the fetus blood is better at obsorbing oxygen than its mothers blood, mothers blood across the placenta, its oxygen saturation has decreased as its been used up by the mothers body, its haemoglboin has to have higher affinity for oxygen, its blood wouldnt be saturated enough
Oxygen also gives up oxygen more/or less readily at higher partial pressures of pCO2? whats this a cunning way of? whens cells respire what do they produce? what does this raise? what rate does this increase? whats the reason this is linked?
what happens to most of C02 from respiring cells? whats it converted to? by what enzyme? what happens to the rest? whats the percentage? what does the carbonic acid do? giving? what does this increase in hydrogen ions cause? what compound is formed? what does this process also stop? what happens to the hydrogencarbionate ions? what are they transported in? what does the low pCO2 cause at the lungs? what does the co2 do then?
More readily, its a cunning way of getting more oxygen to cells during activity, Co2, raises pCO2, increaseing the rate of oxygen unloading, how Co2 affects blood PH
diffuses into red blood cells which is ocnverted to cabonic acid by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, binds directly to haemoglboin and is carried to the luings, 10%, the carbonic acid split up to give hydrogen ions and hydrogencarbonate ions, causes oxyhaemoglbin to unload its oygen so that hawmoglobin can take up the hydrogen ions, haemoglobonic acid, also stops the hydrogen ions from increasing the cells acidity, diffuse out of the red blood cells, the blood plasma, hydrogencarbonate and hydrogen ions to recombine into co2, diffuses into the alveoli and is breathed out