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Metabolism is the sum total of all the biochemical reactions taking place in the cells of an organism.
Anabolism is the building of small molecules to produce larger ones ­ requires energy.
Catabolism is the breakdown of large molecule into smaller ones ­ releases energy.

Carbohydrates Energy storage…

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Alpha glucose has an OH molecule below the plane on C1 and above the plane in beta-glucose.

Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose

Glucose + Oxygen CO2 + energy (ATP)

-glucose can be respired and -glucose
cannot as different…

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to form macrofibrils which have mechanical strength.

Functions of cell walls:
Strength and support
Arrangement of macrofibrils allows water to move in and out of the cell
Cells become turgid preventing the cells from bursting.
Macrofibril arrangement determines cell growth and shape.
Cell walls can be reinforced with other substances…

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Tertiary Structure is the 3D shape of a protein, formed by the further folding and coiling of the
pleated sheets and helix's held together by R group interactions. These interactions may be hydrophilic
and hydrophobic, ionic bonds, di-sulphide bonds or hydrogen bonds. An increase in heat causes the
protein to…

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A covalent bond, called an ester bond forms between three fatty acids and a glycerol by a condensation
reaction, producing a water molecule. Triglycerides are insoluble in water because the charges on the
molecule are evenly distributed (non-polar), so hydrogen bonds cannot form around the molecule.

A phospholipid…

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Property Importance Examples
Solvent Any molecule that is polar will dissolve in water. The 70-95% of cytoplasm is water.
solutes dipoles will interact with water molecules Dissolved chemicals take part in
which cluster around the molecules keeping them processes such as respiration and
apart. Once in a solution the molecules…

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Lipid 1. Add ethanol to extract (dissolve) lipid White emulsion No
2. Pour solution into water in another test tube on surface emulsion

1. Test known concentration of reducing sugars, using the Benedict's test.
2. The more reducing sugar present, the more precipitate will be formed and more Benedict's…

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Two polynucleotide chains come together by the hydrogen bonding between base pairs. The strands
are anti-parallel (strand run in opposite directions), which provides strength. The antiparallel chains
twist forming a double helix.
Complimentary base paring rules:
Pyrimidine: (single ring) cytosine, thymine, uracil.
Purine: (double ring) adenine, guanine.
A-T/U are bonded…

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Intracellular enzymes catalyse reactions inside the cell.
Extracellular enzymes catalyse reactions outside the cell.

Nutrition and digestion
Saprophytes secrete extracellular enzymes e.g. bacteria and fungi
Enzymes are involved in digestion ­ breaking of glycosidic, peptide and ester bonds are catalysed
by different enzymes.
Heterotrophs need to break down the body…

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H+ are attracted to negatively charged species' and repelled by positively charged species'. Hydrogen
and ionic bonds are responsible for holding the tertiary structure of an enzyme together, and
maintaining the shape of the active site. H+ can interfere with these bonds, and so altering the
concentration of H+ ions…


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