battle for the biosphere

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Global biomes

WHAT IS THE BIOSPHERE?

- the biosphere is part of the earths surface inhabited by living things

WHATS A BIOME

-world scale ecosystem, each one has its own type of vegatation and wildlife. The location and characteristics of each biome are determined by climate, due to how climate affects plants

-temperature affects growing season

-precipitation is needed to keep vegetation alive in certain biomes

-sunshine hours determine rate of photosynthesis due to determing amount of light

-humidty controls evapotranspiration

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where are certain biomes located

tropical rainforests are located either side of the equator due too very rich conditions consisting of rain amd hot conditions all year round

deserts- found in the tropics where its very hot and plants  have to adapt to survive with deep roots and thick skins

temperate deidous forests are found in higher latitudes as trees loose leaves to conserve energy.

Latitude affects temperature and precipitation

-coniferous firests grow needle leaves to reduce heat and mosture loss

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taking a closer look

How do sun rays affect tropical forests

-sun rays are at a high angle ever year, these rays are concentrated over a small area, concentrated rays provide large amounts of sung light and heat- so plants grow well

in polar areas

- the sun rays are less concentrated, this lack of heat and light limits vegetation growth. Plants are stunted and low growing

WHERE DOES PRECIPITATION HAPPEN?

-happens in areas with LOW PRESSURE BELTS, which is when air masses meet and air rises

WHY DO DESERTS AND POLAR AREAS HAVE DRY CONDITIONS

-they have high pressure zones

How does soil affect what grows

- due to the soil being alkaline e.g limestone more beach trees are present

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the biopshere is a life support system

-regulation of climate and precipitation

-help purify atmosphere e.g through trees

-provide homes for organims

-protect when waves are dangerous and tsnami e.g mangrove forests and coral reefs

-tourist attractions

-reloigous importance

-prevent flash flooding by trees intercepting precipitation

nutrient cylcing

WHAT GOODS

-FRUITS - meats -wood -drinking water -crops - 

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delivering goods

WHAT DOES IT PROVIDE FOR INDIGNEOUS PEOPLE

-fuel wood for cooking -timber for buildig -herbs for medicine -meat and fruit for food -subsistence crops such as yams  USE THE SLASH AND BURN METHOD - which is sustainable due to only using a certain part of a lamd for 5-6 yesrs and then leave it to recover

HOW DOES TNCS DAMAGE FORESTS

-logging for timber and paper and deforest land to grow rubber ad palm oil

COMMERCIAL FARMERS- cut down trees to provide areas to graze cattle

MINING COMPANIES- search for minerals for oil

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differences between deforest and forested areas

forested areas

-subsistene farming which is sustainable -soil is nutrient rich and intercepts water stopping flash flooding -tree roots bind soil preventing land slides - clean water for drinking - little economiic gain but supports local people

DEFORESTED

-ranching for mainly poor quality hamburgers - nutrients washed away from soil, surface soil wahed away blocking rivers. Rapid surface run off leads to flash flooding -lackof trees means no habitiats for orgranims and due to no tree roots landslides occur -water is muddy and unsuitable for drinking -reasonable economic gain but only for a short while due to the forest not being able to recover causing desertification

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conflicts

guyanna mountains rainforest conflict

-they wanted to cut down the forest and sell the wood causing;

ecotourisum industry clashes

local people and tribes lived there

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impacts of climate change

-increased green house emissions and pollutants have;

-changed weather patterns

-change sea levels

meaning

-tropical rainforest dies due to arid conditions

-migration of animals

-species stress and extinction

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rainforest under threat

OVER HARVESTING- killing of endangered species such as orang utan in amazon

POLLUTION- from oil spills and dumping of toxic substances- has lead to cancers and mutations to both humans and species and has caused many fish to die

MINING- cuts hillsides and destroys surfaces in process for drilling for oil, amazon has been targeted

Intro of alien species -e,g red squirrells killed by grey ones in uk

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how does drought damage the amazon

-during its two severe droughts in 2005 and 2010 the amazon stopped absorbing co2 to emitting it

if this continues to happen it will increase green house gases and therefore impact global warming

droughts also increase the risk of forest fires

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conservation

CITES- protects 34,000 species by banning trade in them e.g its illegal to trade elephants trunk ivory

RAMSAR- conserves wetlands, 153 states have signed it

NATIONAL PARKS- conserve landscapes but still let people enjoy them e.g peak district in UK

UNESCO-teaching people how to earn a living whilst protecting land

SSSI- protects rare species from developmemt and limtis access to these sites

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kilum-lijum forest

-home to 35 communties and 3 tribes

- is underpresure from farming and logging for timber and fuel

HOW HAVE THEY MADE IS SUSTAINABLE

-marked out forest reserve areas

-set up units to monitor and measure foret

-educated communities about replanting trees and doing safe levels of hunting and logging

-the forest area had increased by 8%

HOWEVER WHAT ARE SOME OF THE FUTURE CHALLENGES

-growing population will put pressure on resources

-climate change could damage forest

-funding from places could stop

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT

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