Cold War 1941 - 1949

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  • Created on: 31-12-16 15:25

Atlantic Charter

Joint decleration realesed by Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill.

Signed August 14, 1941
Aimed to: Provide an overview on US and British was aims.

Charter included eight common prinicples.

  • Not to seek teritorial expansion
  • To seek the liberalization of international trade
  • To establish freedom of the seas
  • International labour economic and welfare standerds.
  • Commited to restoration of self-goverments for all countires that had been occupied during the was and allowed poeple to choose there own form of goverment.

Churchill's Goal; To get the Americans into the war and to increase the amount of military aid to Britian to warn Japan taking any agressive action in the pacific.

Roosevelt's goal: To change american public opinion.

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Atlantic Conference

Meeting called in response to the geopolitcal situation in Europe by mid-1941

German troops had had succesful defeats upon - British, Greek and Yugoslav troops.
Threat of losing acces to the Suez Canal(British Empire)
Russia seen as possible weakness to falling under Nazi Power.

Meeting succesfully drafted aims, however both leaders unhappy with the outcome.

Roosevelt wanted for the british goverment to declare they were not envolved in secert treaties (post-war terrotry plans)

Churchill dissapointed by roosevelts refusal to talk about any american entry into the war, saw a joint decleration as possibly politcally damaging for the Prime Minister.

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Forigen Ministers Conference October

18th of october to 11th Of november 1943
At the Moscow Kremlin and Spiridonovka Palace
Major diplomats, ministers and generals attended (the of the first hances tht the forigen ministers from the US, UK and USSR could meet)
Discussed Global matters and what masures needed to be taken agaisnt Germany and the Axis Powers. Agreements Made to Establish European Advisory Commission     

Obliteration of Fascism in Italy, Facists to be barred from public life.

German annexatiation of Austria(1938) declared void

In the "Statement on Atrocities", it was declared that after any armistice with the present or a future German government, that those German individuals suspected of involvement in wartime atrocities in various countries would be sent to those countries for trial and punishment.

This lead to the Moscow Declaration. Included for sections, Declaration of four nations n general security. Declaration Regarding Italy, Declaration on Austria, and Statement on Atrocities.

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28th November to the 1st of December. 

Attended by Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin and Winston Churchill.

Here they dicussed that British troops would attack from the West of Berlin and Russia from the east. 
Britain and America agreed to open second front  in early 1944 by invading northern France.

Stalin, in turn, promised to enter the war against Japan.

Russia promised polish territory and Poland German territory.

Call for a new world peace organisation instead of League of Nations 

There were no disagreements.  

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Soviet Advances

Advanced on Poland in early January 1944 and established a pro communist army on the way, through the country inn Luben --> lead to a pro-soviet goverment. Imprisoned the remainder of the non-comunist polish home-army. 
August 1944  launched offensive to drive German troops out of the Balklans. --> Lead to collapse of Pro- German regimes ( Romania + Bulgaria) - this would then allow acess to Bulgaria. 

Romania Soviets wanted to annex the previouly held Romanian territories of Bessarabia and northan Bukovina lauchned attack 20th August. Armistice negotiated 12 september. 

Bulgaria Invaded september ACC established 28th October.  Former pro german ruling class elminated 10,000 people executed.

Yugoslavia - Soivet and Partisan troops marched on Belgrade 14th October. 
Tito had backing from British May 1944 (weapons + equipment) 
However also wged war on no communists and nationlists. 
Established Comminst Dominated commuties. (Com goverments established Yugoslav+ Albania in November 1944)  

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Soviet Advances

Greece-  Tito Backed Peoples liberation Army(ELAS) they fought Germans and non-comunist groups.  USSR regarded greece within British sphere of influence. Revolt in Athens 3 december, stalins stops tito from helping greek communists. 

Hungry September, December Red Army reaches Budapest. Stalin still wanted to make it part of soviet Bloc 

Czechoslovakia - Felt unsopported by Britian and Frnace over Munich Agreement. Eventually fell to the communists due to occupatation of 44-45 Soviet Army. 

Finland- summer 1944 Soviets offerd armistice on terms of: Declare War on Germans., cede part of the strategiccaly important Petsamo Region on the Arctic coast. Pay reperatitions. Communist party un-popular and lead to democratic country 

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Liberation of Italy and France

1943 Musolini overthrown in scicily, The North Conquered in 1945. Italian goverment established. Goverment supervised by Anglo-American ACC.

Palmiro Togliatti orderd to form coalition with Soialist party and to avoid agressive action. Toliatti became priminister, after gaining communist suport however country remained Democratic after efforts from the church and letters written to family members from America. 

France - Liberated 1944  Galle established inderpendant goverment. December signed Franco- soviet agreement.  - comitted both states to action against any further war with Germany. 

However It still ended p beign democratic 

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Yalta 4th to 11th Febuary 1945, It was attended by Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin. Here they discussed and created the UN and made the declaration of Liberated Europe. Polands borders were also agreed this also lead to the deportation of many German citizans from the land were they had lived for centuries onto the other side of the border, British troops supported this. wiht 3.2 million people being moved.

16th of July Sucessfull Atom bomb testing in the Alamogordo, New Mexico.
17th July Potsdam this conference was attended by Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman and Winston Churchill who was then later replaced after loosing the election at home, by Clement Atlee on the 26th of July. Here they agreed on Denazification, De-Militarization and Punishment of War Criminals, however polands western border still had not been finialised. The powers of the Allied Control Commission was also also not agreed upon. Stalin also wanted to exract as many possible resources from Germany, however the England and America wanted to see and ecnomicaly stable germany on its feet, this was due to the fact that the British and American zones were the most heavly populated and therefore Britain was struggeling to maintain the running costs.
People were also changing over into the Brtisish zones as well.

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Lend Lease and spy network

The Lend Lease Act was ended by Harry Truman. -
Proposed in late 1940 and passed in March 1941, the Lend-Lease Act was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II.

In Setemeber a soviet spy network was discoverd in America nad Canada further putting a strain on the relationship between US and USSR

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Lend Leas programm ended in 1946 due to Harry Truman

Stalin also forced the SPD with the KPD creating the Social Unity party (SED), however he did this with force and the US and UK were not happy with his actiotions

This party was formed on April 21, 1946 in  Berlin.

There was alo a halt on the supply of reperatiotions from the US to the Soviets, the soviets also were taken reperatations from there own zones  

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January - The Amnerican and Britsh zones joined otgether to form Bizonia

Febuary Peace treaties were signed with Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland and Hungry

March 12th the Truman Doctorine was announced -  President Harry S. Truman established that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces.

This was also partly in repsonse to the fact that Britian would no longer be supportign Greece or Turkey, Greece at that point was in Civil War with one side being the Greek goverment army, and the other beign the Democratic Army of Greece. (Communism part defeated 1949) Also the British was still struggleing ecnomicaly and its coal indsutry had come to a halt.

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1947 sept -

June Marshal aid plan. (European Recovery Program, ERP) American initiative to aid Western Europe, the United States gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War 2

September Szklarska Poręba, Poland Cominform Established - this effectivly brought all the soviet satillite states under there control with the french and italian communist parties being represented.With the aim to slowly make the countrys conform to russian stlye communism.Countries were in the most part were split so each had idffernet roles ( Idustralised, Collectivised and Centrallised).Each member was expected was expected to trade with the other members.Contacts with other countries that werent communist was discoureged (for example Yugoslavia didn't and as a result was expelled from Comiform but remained communist) It mostly published properganda to ecourage communist solidarity.

USA saw it as a threat and challenge to the west but had been made in response to Truman Doctorine. 
Paris Conference
London conference November failed russians walked out. 
Decmebr break up of forigen minister conference

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June 1st 1948 - US + UK announced they wanted to create the country of West Germany.

June 20 Currency reform in western zones. Deutschmark introduced 

June 24 The ostmark was introduced.

June 24 Berlin Blockade Soviet forces blockaded rail, road, and water access to Allied-controlled areas of Berlin, . US responded with Berlin Air lift, plans landed in Berlin every 45 seconds, delivering food, fuel and other goods. (Ended May 12th 1949)

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January 5th - Comecon (CMEA, or CAME) established was the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance, compromised of USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Romania and East Germany joined soon after. It was aimed at encouraging economic development and preventing trade with Western Europe and America. It minimized politcla influence from US in Eastern Europe. It meant that economic recovery in east europe remained localised. Eastern Eurpe was further cut of from western influence.

April 4th NATO established.  (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an integovermentle military allience. In accordance with the Treaty, the fundamental role of NATO is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means. NATO is playing an increasingly important role in crisis management and peacekeeping.

August- FRG Federal Republic of Germany (WEST GERMANY)

October - GDR German Democratic Republic ( East Germany) 

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June 25 - Korean War broke out, North ivaded south, with the Northern leader being Kim il Sung, he was secretly supported by the soviet leader Stalin but soviets troops were not involved directly in combat

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5 Year Plan (USSR) for GDR(east germany).  During 1951 Korea and the soviets were working on the atomic bomb (soviets successfully tested 1949) this meant truman was forced to make reamrmamament a priority the USA in response to other nuclear development then went on to develop the hydrogen bomb this tripplled military spending.  By the 1st of November 1952 the US had succesfully tested the Hydrogen Bomb in the Marshall Islands. The expense of rearmamament lead to instability within NATO when the threat of the Soviet threat seemed to be growing. 

The spending by NATO went from 4.4 billion to 8 billion this lead to an industrial boom and an import of raw materials however there was inflation and balance payments. 

July 1950 to June 1951 increasing in living costs throughtou Europe. 20% in France and 10% in italy. However in Britian and the FRG there was no significant increase. Along with this there was also a a shift from civilian to defence spending with higher taxes as a result this lead to the British Labour Cabinet being divided over rearmament. 
French and Italian elections in May and June saw a rise in the popularity of the Communist and Nationalist parites.
 The FRG also saw a come back in the extream right wing in lower saxony. 

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European Coal and Steel Community ECSC - increase in iron Steel Chemicals and food prices. 

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East German Uprising The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany started with a strike by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June 1953. It turned into a widespread uprising against the German Democratic Republic government the next day. However it ended on the 17th . It was put down by soviet troops. 
Stalin also dies and Nikita Kreschev takes over.
Harry Truman is not realeceted and Dwight Eisenhower takes his place. 

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the French reject the EDC 

Berlin Conference. 

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Geneva Conference 
USSR evacuates from Austria, Austria was smiliar to Germany it had been split up into four occupation zones with Vienne being equally divided however the country remained as a whole and was not divided. It was governed under the Allied Comissions Control. 

The FRG also became part of NATO. 

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