AS Edexcel Government & Politics Revision Cards - All Topics

Revision cards on very topic in this course

The cards are not set in order of topics because I find it easier to revise like this

Hope it helps! :)

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What does lack of expertise mean?

People don't know or have the expertise of politics

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Why is size & scale a problem in direct democracy?

  • Modern states are too big for direct democracy to work.
  • It would be impossible to gather all citizens into one please to debate and make decisions.
  • e.g. the UK has 50 million adults in it. There isn't a big enough building for all those people to meet.
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What does Demogogvery mean? (Direct democracy)

People who don't care about politics will bring danger.

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Why some pressure groups confuse pressure groups w

1) Some pressure groups adopt broad range of policies e.g. CBI

2) Some field candidates gain publicity

3) Pressure groups act like parties e.g. Save Kidderminister Hospital in 2001 election

4) MPs often represent pressure groups - political parties e.g. Tom Brake & S.O.S!

5) Some have formal structure and leadership elections e.g. Trade Unions

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What does political participation mean?

All the ways in which people actively take part in politics

E.g. go on strike, protesting or demonstrating such as the student protest in 2010, voting, writing letters to MPs, join trade union or join a pressure group

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What does a subject culture mean?

Citizens see themselves as 'subjects' who must obey the government

You just accept the government without doubt

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What does manifesto mean?

Is a programme of promises which the party will carry out if elected

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What does complexity of issues mean?

  • You need a complex knowledge
  • Everyone would have to be experts in political views
  • Economic, technological and legal matters are so advanced, they require specialist knowledge.
  • E.g. Management of the economy requires an understanding of taxation, interest rates, global markets and competition.
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What does legitimate mean?

When a person or body exercises power with authority

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What is proportional respresentation?

An electoral system where seats are awarded in direct proportion to percentage of votes

e.g. if you win 31% of votes that means you win 31% of seats. This can be seen by STV and Regional Party List.

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What happens if referendums have a high turnout?

The result is legitimate

Because the population have expressed their support for the decision clearly

E.g. Northern Ireland 1998 referendum

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What happens if a referendum has a low turnout?

May lack legitamacy

This is because the majority of the voting popoulation have not expressed their support for the decision.

E.g. the London Mayor referendum 1998 - lowest turnout ever (only 34%)

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What does power mean?

Is the ability of an individual or group to make others do something (which they otherwise wouldn't do)

i.e. there must be more than one person involved

i.e. it is not a coincidence that they both decide to do the same thing

In other words, person A exercising power must make person B act against their own free will

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What was the new kind of Conservatism that was int

New right/Neo-Conservatism/Thatcherism

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Why is speed and efficienty a problem in direct de

Direct democracy is a slow and inefficient way of making decisions

Consulting the entire adult population and allowing them to debate on every issue would lead to dangerous delays in making decisions and policies

E.g. if the UK was invaded or if the economy collaspsed, quick decisions would be needed to be avoid disaster.

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What does a representative mean?

Describes someone who acts on your behalf but not necessarily as you instruct.

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What is the 'rule of law'?

When laws are made to limit our freedoms --> we voluntarilycomply with them.

Politicians, judges and policeofficers apply the rule of law to protect out freedoms from those who do not.

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What does the term 'The State' mean?

Are instituations that work in out country.


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What is a speaker?

Is supposed to remain unbiased throughout debates in the chamber, making sure that the debate is conducted fairly.

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Name some miniority groups

  • Elderly
  • Ethnic minorities
  • Gay/lesbian
  • Unemployment minorities
  • Religious minorities
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